Pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic resistance in young children before 13-valent conjugate vaccine.
ABSTRACT We sought to measure trends in Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and antibiotic resistance in young children in Massachusetts communities after widespread adoption of heptavalent 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and before the introduction of the 13-valent PCV (PCV13).
We conducted a cross-sectional study including collection of questionnaire data and nasopharyngeal specimens among children aged <7 years in primary care practices from 8 Massachusetts communities during the winter season of 2008-2009 and compared with similar studies performed in 2001, 2003-2004, and 2006-2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotyping were performed on pneumococcal isolates, and risk factors for colonization in recent seasons (2006-2007 and 2008-2009) were evaluated.
We collected nasopharyngeal specimens from 1011 children, 290 (29%) of whom were colonized with pneumococcus. Non-PCV7 serotypes accounted for 98% of pneumococcal isolates, most commonly 19A (14%), 6C (11%), and 15B/C (11%). In 2008-2009, newly targeted PCV13 serotypes accounted for 20% of carriage isolates and 41% of penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae. In multivariate models, younger age, child care, young siblings, and upper respiratory illness remained predictors of pneumococcal carriage, despite near-complete serotype replacement. Only young age and child care were significantly associated with penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae carriage.
Serotype replacement post-PCV7 is essentially complete and has been sustained in young children, with the relatively virulent 19A being the most common serotype. Predictors of carriage remained similar despite serotype replacement. PCV13 may reduce 19A and decrease antibiotic-resistant strains, but monitoring for new serotype replacement is warranted.
Article: Post-PCV7 changes in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes in 16 Massachusetts communities, 2001 and 2004.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The introduction of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) has raised concerns for replacement with nonvaccine serotypes in both invasive disease and asymptomatic carriage. Analysis of colonizing serotypes among healthy children in the community provides critical data on such changes. Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained from children who were younger than 7 years during well-child or sick visits in primary care practices in 16 Massachusetts communities during 2001 and 2004. Susceptibility testing and serotyping were performed on isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Vaccination history with PCV7 was abstracted from the medical record. Among colonizing pneumococcal isolates, PCV7 serotypes decreased from 36% to 14%, and non-PCV7 serotypes increased from 34% to 55%. Overall carriage did not change (26% to 23%); neither did carriage of potentially cross-reactive serotypes (30% to 31%). The most common non-PCV7 serotypes were serotypes 11, 15, and 29. There was a substantial increase in penicillin nonsusceptibility from 8% to 25% in non-PCV7 serotypes; 35% were highly resistant to penicillin. Penicillin nonsusceptibility increased from 45% to 56% among PCV7 serotypes while remaining stable among PCV7 potentially cross-reactive strains (51% vs 54%). Pneumococcal colonization has changed after the introduction of PCV7, both in serotype distribution and in patterns of antibiotic resistance. The frequency of nonvaccine strains has increased, and the proportion of nonvaccine isolates that are not susceptible to penicillin has tripled. This shift toward increased carriage of nonvaccine serotypes warrants vigilance for changes in the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease.PEDIATRICS 10/2005; 116(3):e408-13. · 4.47 Impact Factor