Endothelial dysfunction assessed by brachial artery ultrasound in severe sepsis and septic shock.
ABSTRACT Noninvasive evaluation of endothelial function may be accomplished by ultrasound assessment of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. This study aims to investigate the role of FMD analysis on intrahospital prognosis of patients with sepsis.
Adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe sepsis or septic shock were consecutively included. Brachial artery FMD was measured upon admission, after 24 and 72 hours. A group of apparently healthy subjects paired for sex and age was used as controls. Patients were followed up to discharge or death.
We studied 42 patients (mean age, 51 ± 19 years) with sepsis predominantly of abdominal or respiratory etiology (75%). Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II risk score was 23 ± 7, and intrahospital mortality rate was 33%. Flow-mediated vasodilation in septic patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (1.5 ± 7% vs 6 ± 4%, P < .001). Most of the nonsurvivors (86%) showed a decline in sequential FMD analyses, whereas only 43% of survivors showed a reduction of FMD (P = .01). In nonsurvivors, FMD was significantly lower 72 hours after sepsis onset (-3.3% ± 10% vs 5.2% ± 4%; P < .05; time-group interaction P value = .03).
Brachial FMD is altered in septic patients with hemodynamic instability, and its deterioration may be an early marker of unfavorable prognosis.
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ABSTRACT: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to understand the role of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery (BA) and peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) in predicting adverse events, including cardiovascular (CV) events and all-cause mortality. FMD of the BA and PAT are non-invasive measures of endothelial function. Impairment of endothelial function is associated with increased CV events. While FMD is the more widely used and studied technique, PAT offers several advantages. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine whether brachial FMD and PAT are independent risk factors for future CV events and mortality. Multiple electronic databases were searched for articles relating FMD or PAT to CV events. Data were extracted on study characteristics, study quality, and study outcomes. Relative risks (RRs) from individual studies were combined and a pooled multivariate RR was calculated. Thirty-six studies for FMD were included in the systematic review, of which 32 studies consisting of 15, 191 individuals were meta-analysed. The pooled RR of CV events and all-cause mortality per 1% increase in brachial FMD, adjusting for potential confounders, was 0.90 (0.88-0.92). In contrast, only three studies evaluated the prognostic value of PAT for CV events, and the pooled RR per 0.1 increase in reactive hyperaemia index was 0.85 (0.78-0.93). Brachial FMD and PAT are independent predictors of CV events and all-cause mortality. Further research to evaluate the prognostic utility of PAT is necessary to compare it with FMD as a non-invasive endothelial function test in clinical practice.European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: The endotheliumis key in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases as a result of its precarious function in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Therefore, its clinical evaluation providing diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as its role as a therapeutic target, is the focus of intense research in patientswith severe illnesses. In the critically ill with sepsis and acute brain injury, the endothelium has a cardinal function in the development of organ failure and secondary ischemia, respectively. Cellular markers of endothelial function such as endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and endothelialmicroparticles (EMP) are gaining interest as biomarkers due to their accessibility, although the lack of standardization of EPC and EMP detection remains a drawback for their routine clinical use. In this paper we will review data available on EPC, as a general marker of endothelial repair, and EMP as an equivalent of damage in critical illnesses, in particular sepsis and acute brain injury. Their determination has resulted in new insights into endothelial dysfunction in the critically ill. It remains speculative whether their determination might guide therapy in these devastating acute disorders in the near future.BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:985813.