Sexual dysfunction and hyperprolactinemia in Japanese schizophrenic patients taking antipsychotics.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, evaluated by the Nagoya Sexual Function Questionnaire (NSFQ), and hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia and examine a relationship between sexual dysfunction and serum prolactin levels. This cross-sectional, comparative study was performed using a sample comprising 195 Japanese schizophrenic in- and outpatients treated with antipsychotics (117 males and 78 females). Data were collected from October 2009 to January 2010 using single, cross-sectional ratings of sexual function assessed by the NSFQ and concurrent measurement of serum prolactin levels. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia was high (males 66.7%; females 79.5%). Hyperprolactinemia (>25ng/ml) was highly prevalent among schizophrenia patients, affecting 53.8% of females and 51.3% of males. Among female patients, 16.7% had prolactin levels>100ng/ml. There was no relationship between sexual dysfunction and serum prolactin levels. The present study demonstrated a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction and hyperprolactinemia in Japanese schizophrenia patients. Clinicians should keep these problems in mind and discuss potential solutions with patients to improve patients' quality of life and adherence to therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Using antipsychotic (AP) medication can increase prolactin (PRL) levels and place the patient at risk of sexual dysfunction (SD). Areas covered: The aim of this review is to describe the PRL propensity of the different second-generation and newly approved APs. It then considers the prevalence rates of SDs associated with these compounds in patients with schizophrenia and treatment strategies for the management of SDs and/or hyperprolactinemia (HPRL). Furthermore, we address the lingering question regarding the association between SDs and PRL. Expert opinion: SD (particularly long-term) data remain scarce for several APs. A wide variety of assessment techniques used in SD research make reliable comparisons between APs impossible. The majority of these reports do not equally allow us to distinguish between treatment (AP and co-medication)-emergent SDs and illness-related SDs. This makes it difficult to assess the degree to which these side effects are associated with 'PRL-raising' APs, and what part of this fraction is directly reducible to serum PRL levels. Also, few evidence-based treatment strategies for HPRL and associated side effects are available. Therefore, longer-term randomized controlled trials, using reliable and valid structured interviews or questionnaires, are necessary to establish the precise relationship between APs, PRL levels and SDs rates and develop valuable treatment options.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 04/2014; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the 1970s, clinicians have increasingly become more familiar with hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) as a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication, which remains the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Although treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) as a group is, compared with use of the first-generation antipsychotics, associated with lower prolactin (PRL) plasma levels, the detailed effects on plasma PRL levels for each of these compounds in reports often remain incomplete or inaccurate. Moreover, at this moment, no review has been published about the effect of the newly approved antipsychotics asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone on PRL levels. The objective of this review is to describe PRL physiology; PRL measurement; diagnosis, causes, consequences and mechanisms of HPRL; incidence figures of (new-onset) HPRL with SGAs and newly approved antipsychotics in adolescent and adult patients; and revisit lingering questions regarding this hormone. A literature search, using the MEDLINE database (1966-December 2013), was conducted to identify relevant publications to report on the state of the art of HPRL and to summarize the available evidence with respect to the propensity of the SGAs and the newly approved antipsychotics to elevate PRL levels. Our review shows that although HPRL usually is defined as a sustained level of PRL above the laboratory upper limit of normal, limit values show some degree of variability in clinical reports, making the interpretation and comparison of data across studies difficult. Moreover, many reports do not provide much or any data detailing the measurement of PRL. Although the highest rates of HPRL are consistently reported in association with amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone, while aripiprazole and quetiapine have the most favorable profile with respect to this outcome, all SGAs can induce PRL elevations, especially at the beginning of treatment, and have the potential to cause new-onset HPRL. Considering the PRL-elevating propensity of the newly approved antipsychotics, evidence seems to indicate these agents have a PRL profile comparable to that of clozapine (asenapine and iloperidone), ziprasidone and olanzapine (lurasidone). PRL elevations with antipsychotic medication generally are dose dependant. However, antipsychotics having a high potential for PRL elevation (amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone) can have a profound impact on PRL levels even at relatively low doses, while PRL levels with antipsychotics having a minimal effect on PRL, in most cases, can remain unchanged (quetiapine) or reduce (aripiprazole) over all dosages. Although tolerance and decreases in PRL values after long-term administration of PRL-elevating antipsychotics can occur, the elevations, in most cases, remain above the upper limit of normal. PRL profiles of antipsychotics in children and adolescents seem to be the same as in adults. The hyperprolactinemic effects of antipsychotic medication are mostly correlated with their affinity for dopamine D2 receptors at the level of the anterior pituitary lactotrophs (and probably other neurotransmitter mechanisms) and their blood-brain barrier penetrating capability. Even though antipsychotics are the most common cause of pharmacologically induced HPRL, recent research has shown that HPRL can be pre-existing in a substantial portion of antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis or at-risk mental state.CNS Drugs 03/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prolactin elevations occur in people treated with antipsychotic medications and are often much higher in women than in men. Hyperprolactinemia is known to cause amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, galactorrhea and gynecomastia in females and is also associated with sexual dysfunction and bone loss. These side effects increase risk of antipsychotic nonadherence and suicide and pose significant problems in the long term management of women with schizophrenia. In this manuscript, we review the literature on prolactin; its physiology, plasma levels, side effects and strategies for treatment. We also present the rationale and protocol for an ongoing clinical trial to treat symptomatic hyperprolactinemia in premenopausal women with schizophrenia. More attention and focus are needed to address these significant side effects and help the field better personalize the treatment of women with schizophrenia.BMC Psychiatry 08/2013; 13(1):214. · 2.24 Impact Factor