Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) prevents renal mitochondrial dysfunction in an experimental model of type 2 diabetes
ABSTRACT Cardiovascular benefits of ubiquinone have been previously demonstrated, and we administered it as a novel therapy in an experimental model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. db/db and dbH mice were followed for 10 weeks, after randomization to receive either vehicle or ubiquinone (CoQ10; 10mg/kg/day) orally. db/db mice had elevated urinary albumin excretion rates and albumin:creatinine ratio, not seen in db/db CoQ10-treated mice. Renal cortices from db/db mice had lower total and oxidized CoQ10 content, compared with dbH mice. Mitochondria from db/db mice also contained less oxidized CoQ10(ubiquinone) compared with dbH mice. Diabetes-induced increases in total renal collagen but not glomerulosclerosis were significantly decreased with CoQ10 therapy. Mitochondrial superoxide and ATP production via complex II in the renal cortex were increased in db/db mice, with ATP normalized by CoQ10. However, excess renal mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and increased mitochondrial membrane potential seen in db/db mice were attenuated with CoQ10. Renal superoxide dismutase activity was also lower in db/db mice compared with dbH mice. Our results suggest that a deficiency in mitochondrial oxidized CoQ10 (ubiquinone) may be a likely precipitating factor for diabetic nephropathy. Therefore CoQ10 supplementation may be renoprotective in type 2 diabetes, via preservation of mitochondrial function.
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ABSTRACT: An increase in the production of reactive oxygen species is commonly thought to contribute to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to assess whether administration of the antioxidant coenzyme Q(10) would protect the diabetic heart against dysfunction and remodelling, using the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the efficacy of coenzyme Q(10) to that of the ACE inhibitor ramipril. Six-week-old non-diabetic db/+ mice and diabetic db/db mice received either normal drinking water or water supplemented with coenzyme Q(10) for 10 weeks. Endpoint cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and catheterisation. Ventricular tissue was collected for histology, gene expression and protein analysis. Untreated db/db diabetic mice exhibited hyperglycaemia, accompanied by diastolic dysfunction and adverse structural remodelling, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and increased apoptosis. Systemic lipid peroxidation and myocardial superoxide generation were also elevated in db/db mice. Coenzyme Q(10) and ramipril treatment reduced superoxide generation, ameliorated diastolic dysfunction and reduced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in db/db mice. Phosphorylation of Akt, although depressed in untreated db/db mice, was restored with coenzyme Q(10) administration. We postulate that preservation of cardioprotective Akt signalling may be a mechanism by which coenzyme Q(10)-treated db/db mice are protected from pathological cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that coenzyme Q(10) attenuates oxidative stress and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and remodelling in the diabetic heart. Addition of coenzyme Q(10) to the current therapy used in diabetic patients with diastolic dysfunction warrants further investigation.Diabetologia 02/2012; 55(5):1544-53. DOI:10.1007/s00125-012-2495-3 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims. Proteinuria not only is a sign of kidney damage, but also is involved in the progression of renal diseases as an independent pathologic factor. Clinically, glomerular proteinuria is most commonly observed, which relates to structural and functional anomalies in the glomerular filtration barrier. The aim of this paper was to describe the pathogenesis of glomerular proteinuria. Data Sources. Articles on glomerular proteinuria retrieved from Pubmed and MEDLINE in the recent 5 years were reviewed. Results. The new understanding of the roles of glomerular endothelial cells and the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in the pathogenesis of glomerular proteinuria was gained. The close relationships of slit diaphragm (SD) molecules such as nephrin, podocin, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), a-actinin-4, transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6), Densin and membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 1 (MAGI-1), α3β1 integrin, WT1, phospholipase C epsilon-1 (PLCE1), Lmx1b, and MYH9, and mitochondrial disorders and circulating factors in the pathogenesis of glomerular proteinuria were also gradually discovered. Conclusion. Renal proteinuria is a manifestation of glomerular filtration barrier dysfunction. Not only glomerular endothelial cells and GBM, but also the glomerular podocytes and their SDs play an important role in the pathogenesis of glomerular proteinuria.05/2012; 2012:314251. DOI:10.1155/2012/314251
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the role of the mitochondrial protein induced in high glucose 1 (IHG-1) in kidney fibrosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a pivotal mediator of fibrosis and diabetic nephropathy. IHG-1 was identified in a screen for genes differentially expressed in renal cells exposed to high glucose. Here we review the biology of this novel functionally uncharacterized gene transcript. Data from human biopsy material and experimental models indicate increased expression of IHG-1 is a critical component of fibrogenesis as it amplifies TGF-β1 signalling. IHG-1 is expressed in mitochondria, stabilizes PGC-1α protein and increases mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently the crystal structure of IHG-1 has been determined revealing structural homology with canonical 5'→ 3' DNA polymerases and adenylyl/guanylyl cyclases, whereas the closely related yeast homologue has been shown to function as a tRNA guanyltransferase. SUMMARY: IHG-1 is a transcript up-regulated in renal cells exposed to high glucose, in animal models of renal fibrosis and in human diabetic nephropathy. IHG-1 encodes a mitochondrial protein that amplifies fibrotic responses to TGF-β1 and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. Investigation of the functional significance of the highly conserved domains of IHG-1 may lead to new therapeutic strategies.Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 11/2012; DOI:10.1097/MNH.0b013e32835b54b0 · 3.96 Impact Factor