Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) prevents renal mitochondrial dysfunction in an experimental model of type 2 diabetes
ABSTRACT Cardiovascular benefits of ubiquinone have been previously demonstrated, and we administered it as a novel therapy in an experimental model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. db/db and dbH mice were followed for 10 weeks, after randomization to receive either vehicle or ubiquinone (CoQ10; 10mg/kg/day) orally. db/db mice had elevated urinary albumin excretion rates and albumin:creatinine ratio, not seen in db/db CoQ10-treated mice. Renal cortices from db/db mice had lower total and oxidized CoQ10 content, compared with dbH mice. Mitochondria from db/db mice also contained less oxidized CoQ10(ubiquinone) compared with dbH mice. Diabetes-induced increases in total renal collagen but not glomerulosclerosis were significantly decreased with CoQ10 therapy. Mitochondrial superoxide and ATP production via complex II in the renal cortex were increased in db/db mice, with ATP normalized by CoQ10. However, excess renal mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and increased mitochondrial membrane potential seen in db/db mice were attenuated with CoQ10. Renal superoxide dismutase activity was also lower in db/db mice compared with dbH mice. Our results suggest that a deficiency in mitochondrial oxidized CoQ10 (ubiquinone) may be a likely precipitating factor for diabetic nephropathy. Therefore CoQ10 supplementation may be renoprotective in type 2 diabetes, via preservation of mitochondrial function.
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ABSTRACT: Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are important for preventing adverse cardiovascular events not only in patients with a high risk of vascular disease but also in those with a low risk, by reducing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Statin is associated with deteriorating glucose homeostasis and an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, these off-target effects are dose-dependent; it has also been suggested that renal insult can be caused dose-dependently by statin treatment, in contrast to previous studies showing a renoprotective effect. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend the use of high-intensity statin therapy, and extend its use to more people at risk of vascular diseases. However, a European committee has expressed concerns about the potential side effects of using statins in a large fraction of the population for extended periods. This is true of Asian people, for whom the disease burden from cardiovascular disorders is not as great as among Western ethnic groups. There are still many unanswered questions on how to balance the cardiovascular benefits with the potential renometabolic risks of statins. Therefore, genetic or pharmacogenetic approaches are needed to define who is more vulnerable to developing diabetes mellitus or acute kidney injury. In particular, more information is required regarding the metabolism of statins, and their off-target or unknown actions and overall impact. These different renometabolic effects of statins should help in formulating optimal therapeutic strategies for patients for reducing overall morbidity and mortality and not just those associated with cardiovascular diseases.Atherosclerosis 06/2014; 235(2):644-648. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.06.001 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive microvascular complication arising from diabetes. Within the kidney, the glomeruli, tubules, vessels and interstitium are disrupted, ultimately impairing renal function and leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Current pharmacological therapies used in individuals with DN do not prevent the inevitable progression to ESRD; therefore, new targets of therapy are urgently required. Studies from animal models indicate that disturbances in mitochondrial homeostasis are central to the pathogenesis of DN. Since renal proximal tubule cells rely on oxidative phosphorylation to provide adequate ATP for tubular reabsorption, an impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics can result in renal functional decline. Defects at the level of the electron transport chain have long been established in DN, promoting electron leakage and formation of superoxide radicals, mediating microinflammation and contributing to the renal lesion. More recent studies suggest that mitochondrial-associated proteins may be directly involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. An accumulation of fragmented mitochondria are found in the renal cortex in both humans and animals with DN, suggesting that in tandem with a shift in dynamics, mitochondrial clearance mechanisms may be impaired. The process of mitophagy is the selective targeting of damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria to autophagosomes for degradation through the autophagy pathway. The current review explores the concept that an impairment in the mitophagy system leads to the accelerated progression of renal pathology. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular events that govern mitophagy and dynamics in DN may lead to improved therapeutic strategies. This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8.British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2014; 171(8):1917-42. DOI:10.1111/bph.12503 · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims: The aim was to evaluate circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) after antioxidant supplementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients (68 eyes) with NPDR were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Treated with antioxidant supplement (Group A) and untreated control group (Group B). Each tablet, for oral administration, containing pycnogenol 50 mg, Vitamin E 30 mg and coenzyme Q10 20 mg. CMT and free oxygen radical test (FORT) were analyzed at baseline (T0), 3 (T1) and 6 (T2) months in both groups. Results: In Group A, FORT levels and CMT were significantly reduced over time (P < 0.001 for both). In Group B, FORT levels were increased (P < 0.001) and CMT did not vary significantly (P = 0.81) over 3 time points. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the reduction of ROS levels in patients with NPDR thanks to antioxidant therapy. Moreover, our findings have suggested also an influence on retinal thickness.Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2015; 63(1):9-14. DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.151455 · 0.93 Impact Factor