Blunt cerebrovascular injuries in the child.
ABSTRACT Although blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) are a well-recognized sequela of trauma in adults, there have been few reports in children. The investigators questioned whether adult screening protocols are appropriate in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence, injury patterns, and stroke rates of pediatric patients sustaining BCVIs.
Pediatric patients (aged ≤ 18 years) diagnosed with BCVIs at a regional level I trauma center and a pediatric level I trauma center since 1996 were reviewed.
Forty-five patients sustained BCVIs (60% male; mean age, 13 ± .7 years; mean Injury Severity Score, 23 ± 2). Three patients exsanguinated, and 10 presented with stroke; neurologic changes occurred 17 ± 6 hours after injury (range, 1-72 hours). Screening indications were present in 30%. Thirty-two asymptomatic patients were diagnosed. All but 1 received antithrombotic agents; 1 patient had neurologic deterioration despite heparinization. Comparing asymptomatic patients with those with stroke, there was a significant difference in age (15 vs 11 years).
More than two-thirds of patients presenting with stroke did not have screening indications according to adult protocols. With the availability of noninvasive diagnostic imaging such as computed tomographic angiography, broader screening guidelines for children should be instituted.
- SourceAvailable from: circ.ahajournals.orgGiornale italiano di cardiologia (2006) 04/2008; 9(3):209-24.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myocardial contrast stress echocardiography (stress MCE) is a novel method for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD). Few studies have compared the diagnosis of ischemia by stress MCE to angiographic CAD. Dobutamine stress MCE and SonoVue contrast infusion were performed before an elective percutaneous coronary intervention in 37 patients (8 women) aged 45-75 years with symptomatic CAD and at least one significant coronary artery stenosis measured by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). The total and regional perfusion and wall motion (WM) were scored as normal or abnormal and attributed to the three main epicardial coronary arteries using a 17-segment left ventricular model. An intermediate stress level was obtained in 29 (78%) patients, and 2 (5%) patients obtained peak stress. A perfusion defect was detected in 92% and WM abnormality in 57% of the patients at peak stress (P < 0.01). By perfusion, 70% of stenoses were both detected and correctly anatomically located, compared to 42% by WM (P < 0.01). All 21 patients with multivessel disease and/or proximal left anterior descending (LAD) stenosis measured by QCA were identified by stress-induced perfusion defects, while only 11 of them were identified by WM abnormalities (P < 0.01). Perfusion scoring is superior to WM scoring during stress MCE for diagnosing significant CAD in patients obtaining intermediate stress level, in particular, when multivessel disease or proximal LAD stenosis is present.Echocardiography 01/2009; 26(1):52-60. · 1.26 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score predicts adverse clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS). Whether this score correlates with the coronary anatomy is unknown. We sought to determine whether the TIMI risk score correlates with the angiographic extent and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with NSTEACS undergoing cardiac catheterization. We conducted a retrospective review of 688 consecutive medical records of patients who underwent coronary angiography secondary to NSTEACS. Patients were classified into 3 categories according to TIMI risk score: TIMI scores 0 to 2 (n = 284), 3 to 4 (n = 301), and 5 to 7 (n = 103). One-vessel disease was found in patients with TIMI score 3 to 4 as often as in patients with TIMI score 0 to 2 (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74 to 1.56; p = 0.66). However, 1-vessel disease was found more often in patients with TIMI score 3 to 4 than in patients with TIMI score 5 to 7 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.95; p = 0.01), and in patients with TIMI score 0 to 2 than in those with TIMI score 5 to 7 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.66; p = 0.02). Two-vessel disease was more likely found in patients with TIMI score 3 to 4 than in those with TIMI scores 0 to 2 (OR 3.96, 95% CI 2.41 to 6.53; p <0.001) and 5 to 7 (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.75; p = 0.004). Three-vessel or left main disease was more likely found in patients with TIMI score 3 to 4 than in patients with TIMI score 0 to 2 (OR 3.19, 95% CI 2.00 to 5.10; p <0.001), and in patients with TIMI score 5 to 7 than in patients with TIMI score 3 to 4 (OR 6.34, 95% CI 3.88 to 10.36; p <0.001). In patients with NSTEACS undergoing cardiac catheterization, the TIMI risk score correlated with the extent and severity of CAD.The American Journal of Cardiology 04/2004; 93(7):813-6. · 3.21 Impact Factor