Impact of γ-irradiation on extracellular matrix of porcine pulmonary valves.
ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix plays an important role in heart valve function. To improve the processing of porcine pulmonary valves for clinical use, we have studied the influence of cryopreservation, decellularization, and irradiation on extracellular matrix components.
Decellularization was carried out followed by DNAseI/RNAseA digestion and isotonic washout. Valves were cryopreserved in 10% DMSO/10% fetal bovine serum, and then subjected to 25-40 kGy γ-radiation. Extracellular matrix constituents were evaluated by histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and biochemical analyses demonstrated a marked reduction in the expression of extracellular matrix components particularly in the valves that had been γ-irradiated following decellularization and cryopreservation. In this group, histology and immunohistochemistry showed an obvious reduction in staining for chondroitin sulphates, versican, hyaluronan, and collagens. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the smallest fibril diameter of collagen, shortest D-period, and loss of compactness of collagen fiber packaging and fragmentation of elastic fibers. Biochemical analysis showed loss of collagen and elastin crosslinks. Decellularization followed by cryopreservation showed some reduction in staining for collagens and versican, smaller diameter, shorter D-period in collagen fibers, and ridges in elastic fibers. Cryopreservation alone showed minimal changes in ECM staining intensity, collagen, and elastin ultrastructure and biochemistry.
γ-Irradiated valves that have been decellularized and cryopreserved produces significant changes in the expression of ECM components, thus providing useful information for improving valve preparation for clinical use and also some indication as to why irradiated human heart valves were not clinically successful.
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ABSTRACT: Xenogeneic tissues are derived from other animal species and provide a source of material for engineering mechanically functional tissue grafts, such as heart valves, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. Xenogeneic tissues, however, contain molecules, known as antigens, which invoke an immune reaction following implantation into a patient. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the antigens from a xenogeneic tissue to prevent immune rejection of the graft. Antigen removal can be accomplished by treating a tissue with solutions and/or physical processes that disrupt cells and solubilize, degrade, or mask antigens. However, processes used for cell and antigen removal from tissues often have deleterious effects on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tissue, rendering the tissue unsuitable for implantation due to poor mechanical properties. Thus, the goal of an antigen removal process should be to reduce the antigen content of a xenogeneic tissue while preserving its mechanical functionality. To expand the clinical use of antigen-removed xenogeneic tissues as biomechanically functional grafts, it is essential that researchers examine tissue antigen content, ECM composition and architecture, and mechanical properties as new antigen removal processes are developed.Journal of biomechanics 11/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung bioengineering using decellularized organ scaffolds is a potential alternative for lung transplantation. Clinical application will require donor scaffold sterilization. As gamma-irradiation is a conventional method for sterilizing tissue preparations for clinical application, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lung scaffold sterilization by gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of the acellular lung when subjected to the artificial ventilation maneuvers typical within bioreactors. Twenty-six mouse lungs were decellularized by a sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent protocol. Eight lungs were used as controls and 18 of them were submitted to a 31kGy gamma irradiation sterilization process (9 kept frozen in dry ice and 9 at room temperature). Mechanical properties of acellular lungs were measured before and after irradiation. Lung resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were computed by linear regression fitting of recorded signals during mechanical ventilation (tracheal pressure, flow and volume). Static (Est) and dynamic (Edyn) elastances were obtained by the end-inspiratory occlusion method. After irradiation lungs presented higher values of resistance and elastance than before irradiation: RL increased by 41.1% (room temperature irradiation) and 32.8% (frozen irradiation) and EL increased by 41.8% (room temperature irradiation) and 31.8% (frozen irradiation). Similar increases were induced by irradiation in Est and Edyn. Scanning electron microscopy showed slight structural changes after irradiation, particularly those kept frozen. Sterilization by gamma irradiation at a conventional dose to ensure sterilization modifies acellular lung mechanics, with potential implications for lung bioengineering.Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 08/2014; 40C:168-177. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors compared clinical outcomes to determine whether acellular dermal matrix altered the capsular tissue architecture in irradiated and nonirradiated breasts following matrix-assisted expander reconstruction. Part I included all 27 patients who underwent bilateral tissue expander reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix between 2007 and 2012 and subsequent unilateral radiation therapy. Part II included a subset of patients with capsular biopsy specimens taken at the time of implant exchange for histologic analysis. Specimens included irradiated and nonirradiated acellular dermal matrix and irradiated and nonirradiated native capsule. Clinical outcomes were analyzed in relation to capsule architecture and acellular dermal matrix performance. In part I, mean follow-up was 28 months. Grade III/IV contractures were identified in nine patients (all on the irradiated side), and 12 developed noncontracture complications (75 percent on the irradiated side). Nine patients were unable to continue with implant reconstruction and required salvage with autologous tissue. In part II, postirradiation biopsy specimens were taken of the peri-implant capsule in six patients at the time of secondary surgery. Elastin content and the total cellular infiltrate were significantly greater in the irradiated versus nonirradiated native capsules (p = 0.0015). Conversely, the irradiated matrix capsule was composed of similar amounts of cellular infiltrate and collagen as the nonirradiated matrix capsules and nonirradiated native capsules. Irradiated acellular dermal matrix showed the least amount of alpha-smooth actin staining but a similar number of blood vessels. Acellular dermal matrix appears to limit the elastosis and chronic inflammation seen in irradiated implant reconstructions and is potentially beneficial in these patients. Therapeutic, III.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 02/2014; 133(2):214-21. · 3.33 Impact Factor