Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: Community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS)

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kassala, Kassala Sudan.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (Impact Factor: 2.19). 12/2011; 11(1):102. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-102
Source: PubMed


The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas.
A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS) was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA) in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy.
Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1%) of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2%) were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB), respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872\100,000 LB, respectively). Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3%) and acute febrile illness (9.4%) were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%), obstructed labor (14.1%) and puerperal sepsis (10.9%) were the major obstetric causes.Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%). 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths.There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively).
Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide variation between urban and rural populations. Direct causes of maternal death were similar to those in developing countries. To reduce this high maternal mortality rate we recommend improving provision of emergency obstetric care (Emoc) in all health facilities, expanding midwifery training and coverage especially in rural areas.

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    • "Eastern Sudan is an area of high maternal mortality ratio (713 per 100.000 live births) and low use of contraception (44%) [7,8]. Family planning services were introduced in Sudan in 1965 with the foundation of the Sudan Family Planning Association, which provides services throughout the country. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don't use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods: A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results: A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%.In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman's occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions: Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple's educational status and woman's occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.
    BMC Public Health 02/2013; 13(1):102. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-102 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the prevalence of anemia varies significantly both within and between countries, which indicates a need for local data to help improve preventive programs. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality, and contributes to 20% of the maternal mortality in Africa [2-5]. Anemia is one of the most common nutritional deficiency disorders in the world [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major health problem during pregnancy and it has adverse effects on the mother and the newborn. Red cell distribution width (RDW), which is a quantitative measure for red cell size variation (anisocytosis), is a predictor of IDA. Little is known regarding RDW and IDA during pregnancy. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Khartoum Hospital, Sudan, to determine the performance of RDW in the diagnosis of IDA using serum ferritin as a gold standard. Results: Among 194 pregnant women with a gestational period of 21.4 ± 6.5 weeks, 57 (29.4%) had IDA according to serum ferritin levels (<15 μg/l) and 61 (31.4%) had IDA according to RDW (>14.5). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RDW where serum ferritin was the gold standard were 43.8% (95% CI: 31.4-57.0%), 73.7% (95% CI: 65.8-80.5%), 41.0% (95% CI: 29.2-53.6%), and 76.0% (95% CI: 68.1-82.6%), respectively. Conclusions: In this study, we found that RDW has a poor performance in diagnosing IDA among pregnant women compared with serum ferritin as the gold standard.
    Diagnostic Pathology 12/2012; 7(1):168. DOI:10.1186/1746-1596-7-168 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During 4 months (November 2010-March 2011) of an outbreak of hepatitis E virus (HEV), 39 pregnant women presented at Port Sudan Hospital, Sudan, with various symptoms of viral hepatitis. The diagnosis of viral hepatitis was confirmed by serology using ELISA anti-HEV IgG and IgM. The mean (SD) maternal age and gestational age were 24·0 (4·2) years and 33·6 (3·7) weeks, respectively. Eight (20·5%) women were primigravidae. There were 11 (28·2%) maternal deaths, 14 (36·0%) intrauterine fetal deaths, and eight (20·5%) cases of postpartum haemorrhage. There were nine (23·0%) cases of preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) deliveries. Fulminant hepatitis with hepatic encephalopathy was the most common cause of death among these patients. Nine of these women died before delivery and the other two died immediately following the delivery due to severe haemorrhage. There were no significant differences in clinical and biochemical data between the women who died (11) and those who survived.
    03/2013; 107(2):66-68. DOI:10.1179/2047773213Y.0000000076
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