International Circumpolar Surveillance Interlaboratory Quality Control Program for Serotyping Haemophilus influenzae and Serogrouping Neisseria meningitidis, 2005 to 2009

National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Journal of clinical microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 12/2011; 50(3):651-6. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.05084-11
Source: PubMed


The International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) program was initiated in 1999 to conduct population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease in select regions of the Arctic. The program was expanded to include the surveillance of invasive diseases caused by Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. An interlaboratory quality control (QC) program to monitor laboratory proficiencies in the serogrouping of N. meningitidis and serotyping of H. influenzae strains was codeveloped by the Arctic Investigations Program (Anchorage, AK) and the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada) and introduced into the ICS program in 2005. Other participating laboratories included the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), Laboratoire Santé Publique du Québec (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), and Statens Serum Institut (Copenhagen, Denmark). From 2005 through 2009, 50 isolates (24 N. meningitidis and 26 H. influenzae isolates) were distributed among the five participating laboratories. The overall serogroup concordance for N. meningitidis strains was 92.3% (96/104), without including three isolates that were found to express both serogroup Y and W135 specificities. Concordant results were obtained for serogroups A, B, C, and Y among all laboratories. Discrepancies were observed most frequently for serogroups W135, X, Z, and 29E. The overall serotype concordance for H. influenzae was 98% (125/127 attempts). The two discrepant results involved a serotype c strain and a serotype e strain, and in both cases, the serotypeable H. influenzae isolates were misidentified as being nontypeable. These data demonstrate a high degree of concordance for serogroup and serotype determinations of N. meningitidis and H. influenzae isolates, respectively, among the five laboratories participating in this quality control program.

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    • "Serotyping was done by both bacterial agglutination with commercial antisera and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (10). Both laboratories participate in ongoing quality control testing (13). Epidemiological information was collected by a communicable disease officer in the participating regions using a standardized case report form that includes data such as demographic information, risk factors for disease, relevant immunization status, outcome, and clinical manifestations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) project is a population-based surveillance network. Since 2000, Canada has participated in the ICS Invasive Bacterial Disease Working Group's surveillance of invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae (Hi). Methods: A standardized case report form containing demographic and clinical information was completed for all reported Hi cases in the study regions. Isolates were sent to a reference laboratory for confirmation and serotyping. Analysis was conducted on all Hi serotype a (Hia) cases reported from 2000 to 2010. The northern Canadian population was estimated using Statistics Canada information. Results: Of the 130 Hi cases reported from 2000 to 2010, 72 (56% of cases with serotype information) were due to Hia. The number of Hia cases reported each year ranged from 2 in 2008 to 13 in 2010. The average Hia incidence over the 11 years was 4.6 cases per 100,000 population per year. The majority of Hia occurred in infants less than 2 years of age (73% of cases). This age group had an average annual incidence of 87.5 cases per 100,000 population. Among cases for which ethnicity was indicated, 91% of Hia cases reported Aboriginal status with the average incidence being 6.9 cases per 100,000 population per year. The most common clinical presentation was meningitis (reported in 37% of cases), followed by bacteraemia (34%) and pneumonia (27%). More than 90% of cases were hospitalized, and there were 4 deaths, resulting in a case fatality ratio of 5.6%. Conclusion: In the last decade, Hia has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the Canadian North. More detailed surveillance information from a national perspective is needed. Further work on vaccine development should be encouraged.
    International journal of circumpolar health 06/2013; 72. DOI:10.3402/ijch.v72i0.21142 · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Although earlier serotyping results suggested the presence of invasive Hia disease in the mid-1990s (and Hia in carriage studies from the early 1980s), subsequent molecular testing and re-serotyping resulted in reclassification of all of these isolates, mostly to nontypeable H. influenzae. This experience illustrates the importance of molecular methods in evaluation of epidemiologic patterns, inter-laboratory quality control (27), and the importance of close collaboration between laboratory and epidemiology groups. "
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    ABSTRACT: Before introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines, rates of Hib disease in Alaska's indigenous people were among the highest in the world. Vaccination reduced rates dramatically; however, invasive H. influenzae type a (Hia) disease has emerged. Cases of invasive disease were identified through Alaska statewide surveillance during1983-2011. Of 866 isolates analyzed for serotype, 32 (4%) were Hia. No Hia disease was identified before 2002; 32 cases occurred during 2002-2011 (p<0.001). Median age of case-patients was 0.7 years; 3 infants died. Incidence of Hia infection (2002-2011) among children <5 years was 5.4/100,000; 27 cases occurred in Alaska Native children (18/100,000) versus 2 cases in non-Native children (0.5/100,000) (risk ratio = 36, p<0.001). From 12/2009 to 12/2011, 15 cases of Hia disease occurred in southwestern Alaska (in children <5 years, rate = 204/100,000). Since introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine, Hia infection has become a major invasive bacterial disease in Alaska Native children.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 06/2013; 19(6):932-7. DOI:10.3201/eid1906.121805 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the North American Arctic during 2000‒2010. Surveillance data were obtained from the International Circumpolar Surveillance network. We defined a case of bacterial meningitis caused by H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, or S. pneumoniae as a culture-positive isolate obtained from a normally sterile site in a resident with a meningitis diagnosis. The annual incidence/100,000 persons for meningitis caused by H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, and S. pneumoniae among all North American Arctic residents was: 0.6, 0.5, and 1.5, respectively; the meningitis incidence among indigenous persons in Alaska and Canada (indigenous status not recorded in Greenland) for those three bacteria was: 2.1, 0.8, and 2.4, respectively. The percentage of pneumococcal isolates belonging to a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotype declined from 2000‒2004 to 2005‒2010 (31% to 2%, p-value <0.01). During 2005-2010, serotype a caused 55% of H. influenzae meningitis and serogroup B caused 86% of meningococcal meningitis. Compared with all North American Arctic residents, indigenous people suffer disproportionately from bacterial meningitis. Arctic residents could benefit from the development of a H. influenzae serotype a vaccine and implementation of a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    The Journal of infection 04/2015; 71(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2015.04.001 · 4.44 Impact Factor