Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Inhibits Astrocyte Inflammatory Gene Expression Through Suppression of the Proinflammatory miR-155 and miR-155

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
Glia (Impact Factor: 6.03). 12/2011; 59(12):1911-22. DOI: 10.1002/glia.21233
Source: PubMed


Astrocytes, together with microglia and macrophages, participate in innate inflammatory responses in the CNS. Although inflammatory mediators such as interferons generated by astrocytes may be critical in the defense of the CNS, sustained unopposed cytokine signaling could result in harmful consequences. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcription factor required for IFNβ production and antiviral immunity. Most cells express low levels of IRF3 protein, and the transcriptional mechanism that upregulates IRF3 expression is not known. In this study, we explored the consequence of adenovirus-mediated IRF3 gene transfer (Ad-IRF3) in primary human astrocytes. We show that IRF3 transgene expression suppresses proinflammatory cytokine gene expression upon challenge with IL-1/IFNγ and alters astrocyte activation phenotype from a proinflammatory to an anti-inflammatory one, akin to an M1-M2 switch in macrophages. This was accompanied by the rescue of neurons from cytokine-induced death in glial-neuronal co-cultures. Furthermore, Ad-IRF3 suppressed the expression of microRNA-155 and its star-form partner miR-155*, immunoregulatory miRNAs highly expressed in multiple sclerosis lesions. Astrocyte miR-155/miR155* were induced by cytokines and TLR ligands with a distinct hierarchy and involved in proinflammatory cytokine gene induction by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and potentially other factors. Our results demonstrate a novel proinflammatory role for miR-155/miR-155* in human astrocytes and suggest that IRF3 can suppress neuroinflammation through regulating immunomodulatory miRNA expression. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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Available from: Sunhee C Lee, May 26, 2014
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    • "Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (Q-PCR) was performed as described previously [26], using porphobilinogen deaminase (PBDA) or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as endogenous controls. Briefly, total RNA was extracted with TRIzol (Invitrogen/Life Technologies), following the manufacturer’s instructions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant form of primary brain tumor with grave prognosis. Mounting evidence supports that chronic inflammation (such as chronic overactivation of IL-1 system) is a crucial event in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. IL-1 also is an important cytokine with species-dependent regulations and roles in CNS cell activation. While much attention is paid to specific anti-tumor immunity, little is known about the role of chronic inflammation/innate immunity in glioma pathogenesis. In this study, we examined whether human astrocytic cells (including malignant gliomas) can produce IL-1 and its role in glioma progression. Methods We used a combination of cell culture, real-time PCR, ELISA, western blot, immunocytochemistry, siRNA and plasmid transfection, micro-RNA analysis, angiogenesis (tube formation) assay, and neurotoxicity assay. Results Glioblastoma cells produced large quantities of IL-1 when activated, resembling macrophages/microglia. The activation signal was provided by IL-1 but not the pathogenic components LPS or poly IC. Glioblastoma cells were highly sensitive to IL-1 stimulation, suggesting its relevance in vivo. In human astrocytes, IL-1β mRNA was not translated to protein. Plasmid transfection also failed to produce IL-1 protein, suggesting active repression. Suppression of microRNAs that can target IL-1α/β did not induce IL-1 protein. Glioblastoma IL-1β processing occurred by the NLRP3 inflammasome, and ATP and nigericin increased IL-1β processing by upregulating NLRP3 expression, similar to macrophages. RNAi of annexin A2, a protein strongly implicated in glioma progression, prevented IL-1 induction, demonstrating its new role in innate immune activation. IL-1 also activated Stat3, a transcription factor crucial in glioma progression. IL-1 activated glioblastoma-conditioned media enhanced angiogenesis and neurotoxicity. Conclusions Our results demonstrate unique, species-dependent immune activation mechanisms involving human astrocytes and astrogliomas. Specifically, the ability to produce IL-1 by glioblastoma cells may confer them a mesenchymal phenotype including increased migratory capacity, unique gene signature and proinflammatory signaling.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103432. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103432 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition to the contrasting responses to LPS, our study also revealed another important distinction between mouse and human astrocytes, i.e., their differential responses to IL-1. Given the robust responses of human astrocytes to IL-1 (John et al., 2003; Lee et al., 1993b; Liu et al., 1996; Tarassishin et al., 2011a), the lack of response of mouse astrocytes to IL-1 in our study (such as lack of TNFa and nitrite production) was surprising. When cytokine mixture (IL-1/ IFNc) was used, iNOS was induced in mouse astrocytes in magnitudes similar to LPS stimulation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of cultures with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands or cytokines has become a popular approach to investigate astrocyte neuroinflammatory responses and to simulate the neural environment in various CNS disorders. However, despite much effort, the mechanism of astrocyte activation such as their responses to the TLR ligands and IL-1 remain highly debated. We compared highly pure primary mouse and human astrocyte cultures in their ability to produce proinflammatory mediators (termed “A1”) and immunoregulatory mediators (termed “A2”) in response to LPS, poly IC, and IL-1 stimulation. In human astrocytes, IL-1 induced both A1 and A2 responses, poly IC induced mostly A2, and LPS induced neither. In mouse astrocytes, LPS induced mostly an A1-predominant response, poly IC induced both A1 and A2, and IL-1 neither. In addition, mouse astrocytes produce abundant IL-1 protein, whereas human astrocytes did not, despite robust IL-1 mRNA expression. Of the TLR4 receptor complex proteins, human astrocytes expressed TLR4 and MD2 but not CD14, whereas mouse astrocytes expressed all three. Mouse astrocyte CD14 (cell-associated and soluble) was potently upregulated by LPS. Silencing TLR4 or CD14 by siRNA suppressed LPS responses in mouse astrocytes. In vivo, astrocytes in LPS-injected mouse brains also expressed CD14. Our results show striking differences between human and mouse astrocytes in the use of TLR/IL-1R and subsequent downstream signaling and immune activation. IL-1 translational block in human astrocytes may be a built-in mechanism to prevent autocrine and paracrine cell activation and neuroinflammation. These results have important implications for translational research of human CNS diseases. GLIA 2014
    Glia 06/2014; 62(6). DOI:10.1002/glia.22657 · 6.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, we have discovered that hMPV M2-2 is a potent virulent factor that blocks mitochondrial antiviral signalling-mediated antiviral signaling leading to inhibited activity of two transcription factors: NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, and, subsequently reducing production of type I interferon (IFN).28 Since miRNAs are RNA molecules and its regulation has been shown to be regulated by transcription factors, such as NF-κB and IRF-3, and IFNs,31,32,33,34 we investigated whether M2-2 regulates the synthesis of miRNAs. In brief, A549 cells were infected with recombinant hMPV (rhMPV), either WT or a mutant lacking M2-2 (▵M2-2). "
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    ABSTRACT: Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNA), virus-derived sncRNAs, and more recently identified tRNA-derived RNA fragments, are critical to posttranscriptional control of genes. Upon viral infection, host cells alter their sncRNA expression as a defense mechanism, while viruses can circumvent host defenses and promote their own propagation by affecting host cellular sncRNA expression or by expressing viral sncRNAs. Therefore, characterizing sncRNA profiles in response to viral infection is an important tool for understanding host-virus interaction, and for antiviral strategy development. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a recently identified pathogen, is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children. To investigate whether sncRNAs play a role in hMPV infection, we analyzed the changes in sncRNA profiles of airway epithelial cells in response to hMPV infection using ultrahigh-throughput sequencing. Of the cloned sncRNAs, miRNA was dominant in A549 cells, with the percentage of miRNA increasing in a time-dependent manner after the infection. In addition, several hMPV-derived sncRNAs and corresponding ribonucleases for their biogenesis were identified. hMPV M2-2 protein was revealed to be a key viral protein regulating miRNA expression. In summary, this study revealed several novel aspects of hMPV-mediated sncRNA expression, providing a new perspective on hMPV-host interactions.
    Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids 05/2014; 3(5):e163. DOI:10.1038/mtna.2014.18 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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