Polymorphisms in complement system genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
ABSTRACT The complement system plays an important role in inflammatory and immune responses, and recent evidence has suggested that it may also play a role in lymphomagenesis. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in complement system genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a population-based case-control study conducted among women in Connecticut. Tag SNPs in 30 complement genes were genotyped in 432 Caucasian incident cases and 494 frequency-matched controls. A gene-based analysis that adjusted for the number of tag SNPs genotyped in each gene showed a significant association with NHL overall (P = 0.04) as well as with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (P = 0.01) for the C1RL gene. A SNP-based analysis showed that a C>T base substitution for C1RL rs3813729 (odds ratio (OR)(CT) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-0.87, P(trend) = 0.0062) was associated with a decreased risk of overall NHL, as well as for DLBCL (OR(CT) = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.20-0.73; P(trend) = 0.0034). Additionally, SNPs (C2 rs497309, A>C and C3 rs344550, G>C) in two complement genes were positively associated with marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and C1QG was associated with CLL/SLL, but these results were based on a limited number of cases. Our results suggest a potential role of the complement system in susceptibility to NHL; however, our results should be viewed as exploratory and further replication is needed to clarify these preliminary findings.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship of prior autoimmune disease to the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Patients with NHL (n = 278) seen from 1993 to 2002 were compared with a group of patients with other hematological disorders (controls, n = 317) seen at the same time. All patients were questioned about prior autoimmune disease. Comparisons between NHL patients and controls were based on analysis of a 2 2 table of counts using Fisher's exact test. Analysis of the effect of autoimmune disease on NHL status, controlling for other risk factors, was performed using logistic regression. Thirty-six (13%) NHL patients had a prior autoimmune disease compared to 5% of controls (p = 0.001). Sixty-nine percent of NHL patients with a prior autoimmune disease were female compared to 43% without a prior autoimmune disease, and this was similar in control patients, 69% and 48%, respectively. Twenty percent of all women with NHL had a history of autoimmune disease compared to 7% of women in the control group (p = 0.001). Nineteen of the NHL patients with autoimmune disease (56%) received immunosuppressive treatment compared to 5 (38%) in the controls. Autoimmune disease may account in part for the increase in NHL, especially in women.The Journal of Rheumatology 11/2005; 32(10):1884-7. · 3.69 Impact Factor
Article: Prohaptoglobin is proteolytically cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum by the complement C1r-like protein.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many secretory proteins are synthesized as proforms that become biologically active through a proteolytic cleavage in the trans-Golgi complex or at a later stage in the secretory pathway. Haptoglobin (Hp) is unusual in that it is cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum before it enters the Golgi. Here, we present evidence that the recently discovered complement C1r-like protein (C1r-LP) mediates this cleavage. C1r-LP has not previously been shown to possess proteolytic activity, despite its homology to trypsin-like Ser proteinases. We demonstrate that coexpression of the proform of Hp (proHp) and C1r-LP in COS-1 cells effected cleavage of proHp in the endoplasmic reticulum. This cleavage depended on proteolytic activity of C1r-LP because mutation of the putative active-site Ser residue abolished the reaction. Furthermore, incubation of affinity-purified C1r-LP and proHp led to the cleavage of the latter protein. ProHp appeared to be cleaved at the expected site because substitution of Gly for Arg-161 blocked the reaction. C1r-LP showed specificity for proHp, in that it did not cleave the proform of complement C1s, a protein similar to Hp particularly around the cleavage site. C1r-LP accounts for at least part of the endogenous proHp-cleavage activity because suppression of the C1r-LP expression by RNA interference reduced the cleavage of proHp by up to 45% in the cells of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2004; 101(40):14390-5. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: Hereditary C2 deficiency in Sweden: frequent occurrence of invasive infection, atherosclerosis, and rheumatic disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although frequently asymptomatic, homozygous C2 deficiency (C2D) is known to be associated with severe infections and rheumatic disease. We describe the clinical findings in 40 persons with C2D from 33 families identified in Sweden over 25 years. Medical records covering 96% of the accumulated person-years were reviewed, giving a mean observation time of 39 years (range, 1-77 yr). Severe infection was the predominant clinical manifestation in the cohort: 23 patients had a past history of invasive infections, mainly septicemia or meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 12 patients had repeated infections of this kind. Nineteen patients had at least 1 episode of pneumonia, and recurrent pneumonia was documented in 10 patients. Repeated infections occurred mainly during infancy and childhood. Systemic lupus erythematosus was found in 10 patients. Another 7 patients had undifferentiated connective tissue disease (n = 4) or vasculitis (n = 3). We found no correlation between susceptibility to invasive infection and rheumatologic disease. Cardiovascular disease occurred at a high rate, with a total of 10 acute myocardial infarctions and 5 cerebrovascular episodes in 6 patients. Causes of death among the C2D patients were infection (n = 5), acute myocardial infarction (n = 3), and cancer (n = 1). We suggest that severe infection may be the principal clinical manifestation of C2D. We also provide novel evidence for a possible role of C2D in the development of atherosclerosis consistent with findings in mannan-binding deficiency and experimental C3 deficiency. In addition, we confirm the well-known association between C2D and systemic lupus erythematosus.Medicine 02/2005; 84(1):23-34. · 4.35 Impact Factor