Analysis of body composition of 9- and 10-year-old children in Latvia.

University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) (Impact Factor: 0.49). 01/2011; 47(10):573-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT According to the data of epidemiologic research, the prevalence of both excessive and insufficient body weight is increasing in a pediatric population leading to the growing burden of health problems due to these changes. The aim of the study was to understand the current situation of physical development of 9- and 10-year-old boys and girls in Latvia and to estimate the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity among young adolescents.
During 2007-2009, a random sample of healthy 9-year-old (n=184) and 10-year-old (n=320) children from all regions and different socioeconomic groups of Latvia was surveyed in a cross-sectional study. The anthropometric measurements of height, weight, (3) circumferences, and 5 skinfolds were performed. The percentage of body fat was calculated by the equation of Slaughter et al. Body mass index and fat mass index were calculated for each respondent. Children were divided into groups according to these indexes. At the age of 9 years, 69.5% of boys had a normal nutritional level either by BMI or FMI, and 54.5% and 72.2% of the girls of the same age had a normal nutritional level by BMI and by FMI, respectively. Obesity according to BMI in 9-year-old boys was found to be 4.7% and in girls 6.1%; according to FMI, 3.7% and 2.3%, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the cohort of 10-year-old children.
The results of the research showed that the problem of high prevalence of Latvian children with underweight is not smaller than the problem of children with obesity. Evaluation of physical development in children based only body mass index may lead to overdiagnosis of obesity.

Download full-text


Available from: Melita Sauka, Sep 28, 2015
54 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the prevalence of childhood obesity, as assessed by BMI (kg/m(2)), has tripled over the last 3 decades, this index is a measure of excess weight rather than excess body fatness. In this review we focus on the relation of BMI to body fatness and health risks, particularly on the ability of BMI for age >or=95th Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] percentile to identify children who have excess body fatness. We also examine whether these associations differ according to race/ethnicity and whether skinfold and circumference measurements provide additional information on body fatness or health risks. The accuracy of BMI varies according to the degree of body fatness. Among relatively fat children, BMI is a good indicator of excess adiposity, but differences in the BMIs of relatively thin children can be largely due to fat-free mass. Although the accuracy of BMI in identifying children with excess body fatness depends on the chosen cut points, we have found that a high BMI-for-age has a moderately high (70%-80%) sensitivity and positive predictive value, along with a high specificity (95%). Children with a high BMI are much more likely to have adverse risk factor levels and to become obese adults than are thinner children. Skinfold thicknesses and the waist circumference may be useful in identifying children with moderately elevated levels of BMI (85th to 94 th percentiles) who truly have excess body fatness or adverse risk factor levels. A BMI for age at >or=95th percentile of the CDC reference population is a moderately sensitive and a specific indicator of excess adiposity among children.
    PEDIATRICS 09/2009; 124 Suppl 1(suppl 1):S23-34. DOI:10.1542/peds.2008-3586E · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Keywords:Adolescents;children;obesity;overweight;policy;WHO
    Obesity Reviews 06/2004; 5 Suppl 1(Suppl. 1):4-104. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2004.00133.x · 8.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is associated with serious health problems and the risk of premature illness and death later in life. Monitoring related trends is important. The objective was to quantify the worldwide prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children on the basis of the new World Health Organization standards. A total of 450 nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from 144 countries were analyzed. Overweight and obesity were defined as the proportion of preschool children with values >2 SDs and >3 SDs, respectively, from the World Health Organization growth standard median. Being "at risk of overweight" was defined as the proportion with values >1 SD and ≤2 SDs, respectively. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to estimate the rates and numbers of affected children. In 2010, 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight and obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight. The worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 4.2% (95% CI: 3.2%, 5.2%) in 1990 to 6.7% (95% CI: 5.6%, 7.7%) in 2010. This trend is expected to reach 9.1% (95% CI: 7.3%, 10.9%), or ≈60 million, in 2020. The estimated prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Africa in 2010 was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.4%, 9.5%) and is expected to reach 12.7% (95% CI: 10.6%, 14.8%) in 2020. The prevalence is lower in Asia than in Africa (4.9% in 2010), but the number of affected children (18 million) is higher in Asia. Childhood overweight and obesity have increased dramatically since 1990. These findings confirm the need for effective interventions starting as early as infancy to reverse anticipated trends.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2010; 92(5):1257-64. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.2010.29786 · 6.77 Impact Factor
Show more