Analysis of Sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling mutants reveals endodermal requirements for the growth but not dorsoventral patterning of jaw skeletal precursors

Eli and Edythe Broad Institute for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Department of Cell and Neurobiology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.64). 12/2011; 362(2):230-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.12.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Development of the head skeleton involves reciprocal interactions between cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) and the surrounding pharyngeal endoderm and ectoderm. Whereas elegant experiments in avians have shown a prominent role for the endoderm in facial skeleton development, the relative functions of the endoderm in growth versus regional identity of skeletal precursors have remained unclear. Here we describe novel craniofacial defects in zebrafish harboring mutations in the Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) type 2 receptor (s1pr2) or the S1P transporter Spinster 2 (spns2), and we show that S1P signaling functions in the endoderm for the proper growth and positioning of the jaw skeleton. Surprisingly, analysis of s1pr2 and spns2 mutants, as well as sox32 mutants that completely lack endoderm, reveals that the dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning of jaw skeletal precursors is largely unaffected even in the absence of endoderm. Instead, we observe reductions in the ectodermal expression of Fibroblast growth factor 8a (Fgf8a), and transgenic misexpression of Shha restores fgf8a expression and partially rescues the growth and differentiation of jaw skeletal precursors. Hence, we propose that the S1P-dependent anterior foregut endoderm functions primarily through Shh to regulate the growth but not DV patterning of zebrafish jaw precursors.

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Available from: Bartosz Balczerski, Aug 22, 2015
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    • "On the other hand, the number and morphology of the ceratobranchial arch were relatively normal. The pharyngeal defects are consistent with a recent report that demonstrated morphological defects of the lower jaw in both s1pr2 and spns2 mutants (Balczerski et al., 2012). We also found that the cell adhesion molecule Fig. 1. "
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    ABSTRACT: The proper function of the craniofacial skeleton requires the proper shaping of many individual skeletal elements. Neural crest cells generate much of the craniofacial skeleton and morphogenesis of skeletal elements occurs in transient, reiterated structures termed pharyngeal arches. The shape of individual elements depends upon intrinsic patterning within the neural crest as well as extrinsic signals to the neural crest from adjacent tissues within the arches. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is known to play roles in craniofacial development, yet its involvement in intrinsic and extrinsic patterning of the craniofacial skeleton is still not well understood. Here, we show that morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and patterning of the neural crest require Hh signaling. Loss of Hh signaling, in smoothened (smo) mutants, disrupts the expression of some Dlx genes as well as other markers of dorsal/ventral patterning of the neural crest. Transplantation of wild-type neural crest cells into smo mutants rescues this defect, demonstrating that the neural crest requires reception of Hh signals for proper patterning. Despite the rescue, morphogenesis of the facial skeleton is not fully recovered. Through transplant analyses, we find two additional requirements for Hh signaling. The endoderm requires the reception of Hh signals for proper morphogenetic movements of the pharyngeal arches and the neural crest require the reception of Hh signaling for the activity of a reverse signal that maintains sonic hedgehog expression in the endoderm. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hh signaling is essential to establish intrinsic and extrinsic patterning information for the craniofacial skeleton.
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    ABSTRACT: Morphogenesis of the vertebrate head relies on proper dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning of neural crest cells (NCC) within the pharyngeal arches. Endothelin-1 (Edn1)-induced signaling through the endothelin-A receptor (Ednra) is crucial for cranial NCC patterning within the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch, from which the lower jaw arises. Deletion of Edn1, Ednra or endothelin-converting enzyme in mice causes perinatal lethality due to severe craniofacial birth defects. These include homeotic transformation of mandibular arch-derived structures into more maxillary-like structures, indicating a loss of NCC identity. All cranial NCCs express Ednra whereas Edn1 expression is limited to the overlying ectoderm, core paraxial mesoderm and pharyngeal pouch endoderm of the mandibular arch as well as more caudal arches. To define the developmental significance of Edn1 from each of these layers, we used Cre/loxP technology to inactivate Edn1 in a tissue-specific manner. We show that deletion of Edn1 in either the mesoderm or endoderm alone does not result in cellular or molecular changes in craniofacial development. However, ectodermal deletion of Edn1 results in craniofacial defects with concomitant changes in the expression of early mandibular arch patterning genes. Importantly, our results also both define for the first time in mice an intermediate mandibular arch domain similar to the one defined in zebrafish and show that this region is most sensitive to loss of Edn1. Together, our results illustrate an integral role for ectoderm-derived Edn1 in early arch morphogenesis, particularly in the intermediate domain.
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