Barch DM, Ceaser A. Cognition in schizophrenia: core psychological and neural mechanisms. Trends Cogn Sci 16: 27-34

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States
Trends in Cognitive Sciences (Impact Factor: 21.97). 12/2011; 16(1):27-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2011.11.015
Source: PubMed


The challenge in understanding cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is that people with this illness have deficits in an array of domains. Here, we briefly review evidence regarding the pattern of deficits within three domains: context processing, working memory and episodic memory. We suggest that there may be a common mechanism driving deficits in these domains - an impairment in the ability to actively represent goal information in working memory to guide behavior, a function we refer to as proactive control. We suggest that such deficits in proactive control reflect impairments in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, its interactions with other brain regions, such as parietal cortex, thalamus and striatum, and the influence of neurotransmitter systems, such as dopamine, GABA and glutamate.

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    • "Thus the present findings suggest that the ability to gate intrusive sensory information could protect patients with schizophrenia against hallucinatory behaviors . Although no causal link can be drawn, they demonstrate: (i) the value of research strategies focusing on specific symptoms and their relationships with cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders (Barch and Ceaser, 2012; Elvevag and Goldberg, 2000), and (ii) the need to target core cognitive impairments such as sensory gating deficits in order to develop new effective strategies against hallucinatory behavior. "

    Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2015.10.031 · 3.10 Impact Factor
    • "Please cite this article as: Baskak, B., et al., Effect of a socıal defeat experıence on prefrontal actıvıty ın schızophrenıa. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging (2015), dysfunction in schizophrenia (Goldman-Rakic and Selemon, 1997; Davidson and Heinrichs, 2003; Glahn et al., 2005; Barch and Ceasar, 2012). The PFC is also sensitive to stressful situations, particularly in the social context (Watt et al., 2009; Watt et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The social defeat (SD) hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that repeated experiences of SD may lead to sensitization of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and to precipitation of psychosis. Based on previous definitions adapted to a human experimental paradigm, we prepared a computer simulation of SD to mimic this subjective experience. We measured prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls during exposure to a single SD experience with functional near infrared spectroscopy. PFC activity declined in both groups. Compared with the control condition, SD exposure was associated with a broader decline in left ventromedial, right medial and right lateral PFC activity in healthy controls (n=25), and a sharper decline in right ventrolateral PFC activity in subjects with schizophrenia (n=25). The activity in the right ventrolateral PFC, was significantly lower in patients compared with controls. This may be due to a deficiency in emotion regulation or self-control, or it may be related to impaired empathy in schizophrenia. Different patterns of brain activity during the SD experience in subjects with schizophrenia versus healthy controls may provide indirect evidence regarding the SD hypothesis of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    07/2015; 233(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.07.017
    • "On the other hand, an intriguing finding in psychosis research is that, despite schizophrenia and other psychoses running in families, most affected individuals do not have family history of the illness (Welham et al., 2009). There is now increasing evidence suggesting that cognitive dysfunction is a reliable and stable feature of psychosis (Barch and Ceaser, 2012) and that it predicts psychosocial functioning and functional capacity better than clinical manifestations in schizophrenia patients (Bowie et al., 2008). Moreover, an association between bipolar disorder and cognitive impairment has repeatedly been described even for euthymic patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia and other psychoses are complex disorders with high rates of cognitive impairment and a considerable degree of genetic and environmental influence on its etiology. Whether cognitive impairment is related to dimensional scores of familial liability is still matter of debate. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 169 patients with psychotic disorders and 26 healthy controls. Attention, memory and executive functions were assessed, and familial loading scores for schizophrenia and mood disorders were calculated. The relationships between familial liability and neuropsychological performance were examined with Spearman׳s correlation coefficients. In addition, patients were classified into three groups by family loading tertiles, and comparisons were performed between the patients in the top and bottom tertiles. Low familial loading scores for schizophrenia showed a significant association with poor executive functioning and delayed visual memory. And these results were also achieved when the subset of psychotic patients in the two extreme tertiles of family loadings of schizophrenia and mood disorders were compared. Low familial liability to schizophrenia seems to be a contributing factor for the severity of cognitive impairment in patients with a broad putative schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    04/2015; 227(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.03.024
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