More severe impairment of manual dexterity in bipolar disorder compared to unipolar major depression.
ABSTRACT Mood disorders are associated with various neurocognitive deficits. However, few studies have reported the impairment of motor dexterity in unipolar depression and bipolar disorder. In the present study, manual dexterity was compared between unipolar major depression, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls.
Manual dexterity was assessed by the Purdue pegboard test in 98 patients with unipolar major depression, 48 euthymic or depressed patients with bipolar disorder, and 158 healthy controls, matched for age and gender.
Compared to healthy controls, sum of the scores of right, left, and both hands subtests (R+L+B) was significantly lower in both patients with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder (P=0.0034 and P<0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, R+L+B was significantly lower in bipolar disorder compared to unipolar depression (P=0.0016). Lithium dose and chlorpromazine equivalent dose of antipsychotics were significantly negatively correlated with some of the subtest scores. On the other hand, depression severity did not significantly correlate with any of the subtest scores. Difference in R+L+B between unipolar depression and bipolar disorder remained statistically significant even after controlling for gender, age, lithium dose, and chlorpromazine equivalent dose (P=0.0028). Limitations Bipolar patients during manic episode were not included in the study.
Gross movement dexterity was impaired in both patients with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder. The severity of impairment was significantly greater in patients with bipolar disorder. The functional difference between unipolar and bipolar patients may suggest different pathological conditions between the two depressive disorders.
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ABSTRACT: To identify changes in brain activation patterns in bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar depression (UD) patients. Resting-state fMRI scans of 16 healthy controls, 17 BD and 16 UD patients were obtained. T-test of normalized regional homogeneity (ReHo) was performed in a voxel-by-voxel manner. A combined threshold of á = 0.05, minimum cluster volume of V = 10503 mm(3) (389 voxels) were used to determine ReHo differences between groups. In UD group, fMRI revealed ReHo increases in the left middle occipital lobe, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus and left convolution; and ReHo decreases in the left parahippocampalgyrus, right precentralgyrus, left postcentralgyrus, left precentralgyrus and left cingulated. In BD group, ReHo increases in the right insular cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left precuneus, left occipital lobe, left parietal, left superior frontal gyrus and left thalamus; and ReHo decreases in the right anterior lobe of cerebellum, pons, right precentralgyrus, left postcentralgyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right cingulate. There were some overlaps in ReHo profiles between UD and BD groups, but a marked difference was seen in the thalamus of BD. The resting-state fMRI and ReHo mapping are a promising tool to assist the detection of functional deficits and distinguish clinical and pathophysiological signs of BD and UD.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e79999. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Genetic variants within the ankyrin 3 gene (ANK3) have been identified as a risk factor for bipolar disorder. ANK3 influences action potential generation by clustering sodium gated channels and plays an integral role in neurotransmission. Thus, this gene may influence cognition, a process compromised in bipolar disorder. We investigated whether genetic variants of ANK3 would be associated with an array of cognitive functions in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy individuals. Methods In a sample of 49 patients with bipolar disorder and 633 healthy subjects, we examined possible effects of 2 risk variants within ANK3, rs10994336 and rs10761482, on 7 neurocognitive domains. Results Compared to healthy subjects, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated significantly poorer performance on most of the cognitive domains examined. The risk C-allele of rs10761482 was significantly associated with worse performance on verbal comprehension, logical memory and processing speed in patients. This allele was significantly associated with worse performance on executive function and visual memory in healthy individuals. No significant association was observed between rs10994336 and cognition either in patients or healthy individuals. Limitations The sample size of patients with bipolar disorder was small, and most of the patients were on psychotropic medication. Conclusions These results indicate that a risk variant within ANK3 may have an impact on neurocognitive function, suggesting a mechanism by which ANK3 confers risk for bipolar disorder.Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2014; 158:90–96. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Although many studies have found a negative effect of lithium (Li) on the motor system in bipolar disorder, there is a lack of evidence about the effects of valproate (VP) on motor and sensory speed. We aimed to compare the effects of Li and VP on motor and sensory speed in medication-free bipolar patients (MF) and healthy controls (HCs). Methods: Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder according to the DSM-IV on Li monotherapy (n=22), VP monotherapy (n=21), MF (n=18) and HCs (n=37) were enrolled. The finger-tapping test, Pegboard Test, visual and auditory reaction time tests, Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Edinburgh Handedness Inventory were the measures. Results: The Li group was significantly slower than the HC and MF groups in the right hand trial of the Pegboard Test. The Li group scored significantly lower in the right and left hand trials of the finger-tapping test in comparison to the HC and MF groups. All patient groups (MF, Li and VP) had slower visual reaction time scores than the HC group. The Li and VP groups had significantly slower auditory reaction time scores than the HC group. Conclusion: Lithium may impair sensory and motor speed more than VP. Medication-free patients differed from healthy controls only in the visual reaction time test. Lithium may disturb movement systems by affecting the complex integration of the brain structures serving motor coordination. These results may also suggest that in the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder, disturbance of psychomotor functions may be related to medications.Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology 12/2013; 23(4):305-314. · 0.37 Impact Factor