Adipose tissue IL-8 is increased in normal weight women after menopause and reduced after gastric bypass surgery in obese women.
ABSTRACT Objective The menopausal transition is characterized by increased body fat accumulation, including redistribution from peripheral to central fat depots. This distribution is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that are linked to low-grade inflammation. We determined whether postmenopausal women have higher levels of inflammatory markers, compared with premenopausal women. We also wanted to determine whether these markers are reduced by stable weight loss in obese women. Design and methods Anthropometric data, blood samples and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from normal weight premenopausal and postmenopausal women and obese women before and 2 years after gastric bypass (GBP) surgery. Serum protein levels and adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers were investigated. Results IL-8 expression in adipose tissue and circulating levels were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. IL-8 expression was associated with waist circumference, independent of menopausal status. IL-6 expression and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. Two years after GBP surgery, adipose expression of IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-α and MCP-1 decreased significantly. Serum insulin levels were associated with inflammation-related gene expression before GBP surgery, but these associations disappeared after surgery. Conclusion Postmenopausal women have an increased inflammatory response in the subcutaneous fat and circulation. Inflammatory markers in adipose tissue decreased significantly after surgery-induced weight loss. This effect may be beneficial for metabolic control and reduced cardiovascular risk after weight loss.
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ABSTRACT: To assess acute-phase proteins in relation to ageing, we measured serum concentrations of C-reactive protein of AGP in 131 healthy elderly individuals (aged >/= 65 years) living independently in the community, and 47 healthy younger individuals. Concentrations of CRP in the older persons (median = 3.0 microg/ml) were significantly greater than in the younger group (median = 0.9 microg/ml, p = 0. 0003). Concentrations of SAA and AGP were similar in the two groups, but AGP glycosylation forms with reduced binding affinity for concanavalin-A (changes that have been observed in chronic inflammatory states) were increased in the elderly sample (p<0.0001). These findings suggest that both quantitative and qualitative alterations of acute-phase proteins occur with physiological ageing in humans.Age and Ageing 05/1996; 25(3):224-30. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Reports have suggested that adipose tissue-derived cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 could be involved in the development of these health complications. Since estrogen has been suggested to attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, we investigated whether ovariectomy affected the production and release of these three adipose tissue-derived cytokines with and without estrogen replacement in vivo and in vitro. Female Wistar rats were submitted to either a) ovariectomy, b) ovariectomy and estrogen replacement, or c) sham operation. After five months, animals were sacrificed and parametrial adipose tissue was removed and incubated for up to 24 hours with either interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) (5 micro g/l), dexamethasone (50 nM) or estrogen (50 nM). Ovariectomy significantly increased interleukin-6 gene expression (p < 0.05) as well as interleukin-8 protein levels (p < 0.05) and gene expression (p < 0.05) in the adipose tissue, and estrogen replacement significantly reversed this increase (p < 0.05). However, no direct effects of estrogen were found in in vitro adipose tissue incubations. Neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement had any effects on tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein levels or gene expression. In conclusion, estrogen-deficient rats were found to have increased production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, which could be attenuated by estrogen-replacement. Since estrogen is suggested to be anti-atherosclerotic, this effect might be caused by a reduction in cytokine production from the adipose tissue.Hormone and Metabolic Research 03/2003; 35(3):142-6. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We measured arterio-venous differences in concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) across a sc adipose tissue bed in the postabsorptive state in 39 subjects [22 women and 17 men; median age, 36 yr (interquartile range, 26-48 yr); body mass index, 31.8 kg/m2 (range, 22.3- 38.7 kg/m2); percent body fat, 28.7% (range, 17.6-50.7%)]. A subgroup of 8 subjects had arteriovenous differences measured across forearm muscle. Thirty subjects were studied from late morning to early evening; 19 ate a high carbohydrate meal around 1300 h, and 11 continued to fast. We found a greater than 2-fold increase in IL-6 concentrations across the adipose tissue bed [arterial, 2.27 pg/mL (range, 1.42-3.53 pg/mL); venous, 6.71 pg/mL (range, 3.36-9.62 pg/mL); P < 0.001], but not across forearm muscle. Arterial plasma concentrations of IL-6 correlated significantly with body mass index (Spearman's r = 0.48; P < 0.01) and percent body fat (Spearman's r = 0.49; P < 0.01). Subcutaneous adipose tissue IL-6 production increased by the early evening (1800-1900 h) in both subjects who had extended their fasting and those who had eaten. Neither deep forearm nor sc adipose tissue consistently released TNF alpha [across adipose tissue: arterial, 1.83 pg/mL (range, 1.36-2.34 pg/mL); venous, 1.85 pg/mL (range, 1.44-2.53 pg/mL); P = NS: across forearm muscle: arterial, 1.22 pg/mL (range, 0.74-2.76 pg/mL); venous, 0.99 pg/mL (range, 0.69-1.70 pg/mL); P = NS]. Although both IL-6 and TNF alpha are expressed by adipose tissue, our results show that there are important differences in their systemic release. TNF alpha is not released by this sc depot. In contrast, IL-6 is released from the depot and is thereby able to signal systemically.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 12/1997; 82(12):4196-200. · 6.43 Impact Factor