Adipose tissue IL-8 is increased in normal weight women after menopause and reduced after gastric bypass surgery in obese women

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå Department of Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
Clinical Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.35). 12/2011; 77(5):684-90. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04322.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective  The menopausal transition is characterized by increased body fat accumulation, including redistribution from peripheral to central fat depots. This distribution is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that are linked to low-grade inflammation. We determined whether postmenopausal women have higher levels of inflammatory markers, compared with premenopausal women. We also wanted to determine whether these markers are reduced by stable weight loss in obese women. Design and methods  Anthropometric data, blood samples and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from normal weight premenopausal and postmenopausal women and obese women before and 2 years after gastric bypass (GBP) surgery. Serum protein levels and adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers were investigated. Results  IL-8 expression in adipose tissue and circulating levels were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. IL-8 expression was associated with waist circumference, independent of menopausal status. IL-6 expression and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. Two years after GBP surgery, adipose expression of IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-α and MCP-1 decreased significantly. Serum insulin levels were associated with inflammation-related gene expression before GBP surgery, but these associations disappeared after surgery. Conclusion  Postmenopausal women have an increased inflammatory response in the subcutaneous fat and circulation. Inflammatory markers in adipose tissue decreased significantly after surgery-induced weight loss. This effect may be beneficial for metabolic control and reduced cardiovascular risk after weight loss.

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