Adipose tissue IL-8 is increased in normal weight women after menopause and reduced after gastric bypass surgery in obese women
ABSTRACT Objective The menopausal transition is characterized by increased body fat accumulation, including redistribution from peripheral to central fat depots. This distribution is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that are linked to low-grade inflammation. We determined whether postmenopausal women have higher levels of inflammatory markers, compared with premenopausal women. We also wanted to determine whether these markers are reduced by stable weight loss in obese women. Design and methods Anthropometric data, blood samples and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected from normal weight premenopausal and postmenopausal women and obese women before and 2 years after gastric bypass (GBP) surgery. Serum protein levels and adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory markers were investigated. Results IL-8 expression in adipose tissue and circulating levels were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. IL-8 expression was associated with waist circumference, independent of menopausal status. IL-6 expression and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were higher in postmenopausal vs premenopausal women. Two years after GBP surgery, adipose expression of IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-α and MCP-1 decreased significantly. Serum insulin levels were associated with inflammation-related gene expression before GBP surgery, but these associations disappeared after surgery. Conclusion Postmenopausal women have an increased inflammatory response in the subcutaneous fat and circulation. Inflammatory markers in adipose tissue decreased significantly after surgery-induced weight loss. This effect may be beneficial for metabolic control and reduced cardiovascular risk after weight loss.
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ABSTRACT: Much has been made of obesity's health impact, largely founded on data regarding patient weight and circulating adipose-derived mediator levels. Paradoxically, a "healthy obese" state exists, but substantial knowledge gaps also exist regarding human adipose-phenotype determinants. Surgical major amputation (AMP) patients are the "sickest-of-the-sick." Conversely, elective knee replacement (TKR) is reserved for patients who expect continued health and longevity. To delineate human adipose biology variability and clinical determinants, we studied fresh subcutaneous adipose from AMP patients, using TKR patients as controls. We hypothesized that AMP patients would display a pro-inflammatory adipokine signature, and that certain clinical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, high BMI, uremia) would independently drive elevated adipose inflammation. AMP (n = 29) and TKR (n = 20) adipose tissue samples and clinical data were collected prospectively, and protein was isolated and analyzed for 8 adipose-related mediators. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon's rank sum test, Fisher's exact test, and multiple linear regression modeling of clinical parameter predictors of mediator expression. Interleukin-(IL)-6, IL-8, leptin, resistin, and PAI-1 were differentially expressed (up to 200-fold) between AMP/TKR cohorts. Key clinical parameters that associated with protein levels of adipose phenotype included age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, and warfarin, statin, and insulin use. BMI failed to be predictive. AMP patients display adiposopathy with a pro-inflammatory adipose phenotypic signature compared with TKR controls. BMI fails to predict phenotype, yet other clinical conditions, such as age, hyperlipidemia, and renal insufficiency, do drive adipokine expression. Understanding human adipose phenotypic determinants stands as a fundamental priority when future studies dissect the interplay between adipose biology and surgical diseases/outcomes.Annals of Vascular Surgery 04/2013; 27(3):346-52. DOI:10.1016/j.avsg.2012.07.017 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resveratrol is a natural compound proposed to posses powerful anti-obesity effects. Hypoxia may be an underlying mechanism for adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. We have previously shown that resveratrol mediates a reduction in hypoxia induced inflammation in whole adipose tissue, thus in this study we investigated whether hypoxia and resveratrol primarily affect adipocytes or the macrophages in the adipose tissue. Hypoxia induced a significant increase in the production of hypoxic key markers in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and THP-1 macrophages, and stimulated gene expression levels of inflammatory markers in macrophages with almost no effect in adipocytes. Resveratrol attenuated the hypoxia induced increase in gene expression levels. These results suggest that the hypoxia-induced inflammatory response in whole adipose tissue mainly is driven by resident macrophages. Moreover, the results suggest that resveratrol could have treatment potential by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.Journal of Functional Foods 03/2014; 7. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.02.015 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To elucidate the association among circulating IL-8 and total mortality in a cohort of elderly, and to explore potential sex differences in the observed association. Methods. The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) is a cohort of 70-year-old men and women living in Uppsala, Sweden; baseline period: 2001-2004. IL-8 serum measurements were performed in 1003 participants. Results. In total, 61 men and 40 women died during follow-up (median 7.9 years). Baseline IL-8 concentrations were higher in women than in men (P = 0.03). In a multivariable model adjusting for age, established cardiovascular risk factors, and C-reactive protein, log-transformed standard deviation increments in IL-8 levels were weakly associated with an increased risk for total mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.23, P < 0.05) in the whole cohort. Stratified analysis revealed an association in women (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.30, P < 0.01) but not in men (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76-1.26). Conclusions. A weak association between IL-8 serum levels and an increased risk for mortality was observed. The prospective data support the role of IL-8 as a biomarker of interest; yet, further studies are warranted to elucidate validity of our finding and the possibility of a sex difference.Annals of Medicine 10/2014; 47(1):1-6. DOI:10.3109/07853890.2014.962596 · 4.73 Impact Factor