Effects of chronic guanosine treatment on hippocampal damage and cognitive impairment of rats submitted to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
ABSTRACT Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion contributes to a cognitive decline related to brain disorders. Its experimental model in rats is a permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). Overstimulation of the glutamatergic system excitotoxicity due to brain energetic disturbance in 2VO animals seems to play a pivotal role as a mechanism of cerebral damage. The nucleoside guanosine (GUO) exerts extracellular effects including antagonism of glutamatergic activity. Accordingly, our group demonstrated several neuroprotective effects of GUO against glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated a chronic GUO treatment effects in rats submitted to 2VO. We evaluated the animals performance in the Morris water maze and hippocampal damage by neurons and astrocytes immunohistochemistry. In addition, we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serum S100B levels. Additionally, the purine CSF and plasma levels were determined. GUO treatment did not prevent the cognitive impairment promoted by 2VO. However, none of the 2VO animals treated with GUO showed differences in the hippocampal regions compared to control, while 20% of 2VO rats not treated with GUO presented loss of pyramidal neurons and increased glial labeling cells in CA1 hippocampal region. In addition, we did not observe differences in CSF BDNF nor serum S100B levels among the groups. Of note, both the 2VO surgery and GUO treatment changed the purine CSF and plasma profile. In conclusion, GUO treatment did not prevent the cognitive impairment observed in 2VO animals, but our data suggest that GUO could be neuroprotective against hippocampal damage induced by 2VO.