Prevention and Management of Postoperative Delirium Among Older Patients on an Orthopedic Surgical Unit A Best Practice Implementation Project
ABSTRACT Delirium is an acute state of confusion that is often seen in older patients after major orthopedic surgical procedures. It is associated with increased costs of care, morbidity, delayed functional recovery, and prolonged hospital stay. Identification of predictive risk factors, early diagnosis and treatment, and implementation of environmental controls can minimize the impact of postoperative delirium. This project measured pre- and post intervention compliance with best practice in the prevention and management of postoperative delirium.
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ABSTRACT: The 2007 American College of Cardiologists/American Heart Association Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiac Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery is the standard for perioperative cardiac evaluation. Recent work has shown that residents and anesthesiologists do not apply these guidelines when tested. This research hypothesized that a decision support tool would improve adherence to this consensus guideline. Anesthesiology residents at four training programs participated in an unblended, prospective, randomized, cross-over trial in which they completed two tests covering clinical scenarios. One quiz was completed from memory and one with the aid of an electronic decision support tool. Performance was evaluated by overall score (% correct), number of incorrect answers with possibly increased cost or risk of care, and the amount of time required to complete the quizzes both with and without the cognitive aid. The primary outcome was the proportion of correct responses attributable to the use of the decision support tool. All anesthesiology residents at four institutions were recruited and 111 residents participated. Use of the decision support tool resulted in a 25% improvement in adherence to guidelines compared with memory alone (P < 0.0001), and participants made 77% fewer incorrect responses that would have resulted in increased costs. Use of the tool was associated with a 3.4-min increase in time to complete the test (P < 0.001). Use of an electronic decision support tool significantly improved adherence to the guidelines as compared with memory alone. The decision support tool also prevented inappropriate management steps possibly associated with increased healthcare costs.Anesthesiology 04/2014; 59(1). DOI:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000251 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Delirium is a life-threatening, frequently reversible condition that is often a sign of an underlying health problem. In-hospital mortality alone for older adults with delirium ranges from 25% to 33%. Early recognition of delirium is critical because prolonged duration poses a greater risk of poor functional outcomes for older adults. Family caregivers, who are familiar with the older adult's usual behaviors, are most likely to recognize delirium symptoms but might dismiss them as due to aging. It is important to learn what family caregivers know about delirium to ascertain their need for education. The aims of this study were to describe family caregivers' knowledge of delirium and preferred modalities for receipt of information about delirium. A cross-sectional design was used for this study and a survey distributed to family caregivers for older adults. Analysis of 134 usable surveys indicated that family caregivers need and want information about delirium. The preferred modalities for receipt of information included Internet, in-person classes, and newsletters.Journal of Applied Gerontology 06/2014; DOI:10.1177/0733464814535484 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been noted that increased focus on learning acute care skills is needed in undergraduate medical curricula. This study investigated whether a simulation-based curriculum improved a senior medical student's ability to manage acute coronary syndrome as measured during a clinical performance examination (CPX). The authors hypothesized that simulation training would improve overall performance when compared with targeted didactics or historical controls. All 4th-year medical students (n = 291) over 2 years at the authors' institution were included in this study. In the 3rd year of medical school, the "control" group received no intervention, the "didactic" group received a targeted didactic curriculum, and the "simulation" group participated in small group simulation training and the didactic curriculum. For intergroup comparison on the CPX, the authors calculated the percentage of correct actions completed by the student. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation with significance defined as P < 0.05. There was a significant improvement in overall performance with simulation versus both didactics and control (P < 0.001). Performance on the physical examination component was significantly better in simulation versus both didactics and control, as was for diagnosis: simulation versus both didactics and control (P < 0.02 for all comparisons). Simulation training had a modest impact on overall CPX performance in the management of a simulated acute coronary syndrome. Additional studies are needed to evaluate how to further improve curricula regarding unstable patients.The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 11/2013; DOI:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3182a562d7 · 1.52 Impact Factor