Use of MRI for volume estimation of tibialis posterior and plantar intrinsic foot muscles in healthy and chronic plantar fasciitis limbs
ABSTRACT Due to complexity of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, little is known about their muscle architecture in vivo. Chronic plantar fasciitis may be accompanied by muscle atrophy of plantar intrinsic foot muscles and tibialis posterior compromising the dynamic support of the foot prolonging the injury. Magnetic resonance images of the foot may be digitized to quantify muscle architecture. The first purpose of this study was to estimate in vivo the volume and distribution of healthy plantar intrinsic foot muscles. The second purpose was to determine whether chronic plantar fasciitis is accompanied by atrophy of plantar intrinsic foot muscles and tibialis posterior.
Magnetic resonance images were taken bilaterally in eight subjects with unilateral plantar fasciitis. Muscle perimeters were digitally outlined and muscle signal intensity thresholds were determined for each image for volume computation.
The mean volume of contractile tissue in healthy plantar intrinsic foot muscles was 113.3 cm(3). Forefoot volumes of plantar fasciitis plantar intrinsic foot muscles were 5.2% smaller than healthy feet (P=0.03, ES=0.26), but rearfoot (P=0.26, ES=0.08) and total foot volumes (P=0.07) were similar. No differences were observed in tibialis posterior size.
While the total volume of plantar intrinsic foot muscles was similar in healthy and plantar fasciitis feet, atrophy of the forefoot plantar intrinsic foot muscles may contribute to plantar fasciitis by destabilizing the medial longitudinal arch. These results suggest that magnetic resonance imaging measures may be useful in understanding the etiology and rehabilitation of chronic plantar fasciitis.
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ABSTRACT: A specific training program emphasizing the neuromuscular recruitment of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, colloquially referred to as "short foot" exercise (SFE) training, has been suggested as a means to dynamically support the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) during functional tasks. A single-group repeated measures pre- and post-intervention study design was utilized to determine if a 4-week intrinsic foot muscle training program would impact the amount of navicular drop (ND), increase the arch height index (AHI), improve performance during a unilateral functional reaching maneuver, or the qualitative assessment of the ability to hold the arch position in single limb stance position in an asymptomatic cohort. 21 asymptomatic subjects (42 feet) completed the 4-week SFE training program. Subject ND decreased by a mean of 1.8 mm at 4 weeks and 2.2 mm at 8 weeks (p < 0.05). AHI increased from 28 to 29% (p < 0.05). Intrinsic foot muscle performance during a static unilateral balancing activity improved from a grade of fair to good (p < 0.001) and subjects experienced a significant improvement during a functional balance and reach task in all directions with the exception of an anterior reach (p < 0.05). This study offers preliminary evidence to suggest that SFE training may have value in statically and dynamically supporting the MLA. Further research regarding the value of this exercise intervention in foot posture type or pathology specific patient populations is warranted.Manual therapy 04/2013; 18(5). DOI:10.1016/j.math.2013.02.007 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To describe a semi-automated program that will segment subcutaneous fat, muscle, and adipose tissue in the foot using MR imaging, determine the reliability of the program between and within raters, and determine the validity of the program using MR phantoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images were acquired from 19 subjects with and without diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. Two raters segmented and measured volumes from single MR slices at the forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot at two different times. Intra- and inter-rater correlation coefficients were determined. Muscle and fat MR phantoms of known volumes were measured by the program. RESULTS: Most ICC reliability values were over 0.950. Validity estimates comparing MR estimates and known volumes resulted in r2 values above 0.970 for all phantoms. The root mean square error was less than 5% for all phantoms. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous fat, lean muscle, and adipose tissue volumes in the foot can be quantified in a reliable and valid way. This program can be applied in future studies investigating the relationship of these foot structures to functions in important pathologies, including the neuropathic foot or other musculoskeletal problems. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 11/2013; 38(5). DOI:10.1002/jmri.24069 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life -- Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery generally, and specific to physical therapy and podiatry treatment, will also be analyzed. This study will be the first pragmatic trial to investigate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of ePT and uPOD in individuals with PHP. The results will serve to inform clinical practice decisions and management guidelines of multiple disciplines.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01865734.Trials 12/2013; 14(1):414. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-414 · 2.12 Impact Factor