Wholegrain cereals and bread: A duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Centre for Biomedical Research (CIB), Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain.
Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.68). 12/2011; 14(12A):2316-22. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980011002576
Source: PubMed


The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Wholegrain cereals are rich in nutrients and many phytochemical compounds, with recognised benefits for health, including dietary fibre, a number of phenolic compounds, lignans, vitamins and minerals and other bioactive components. The aim of the present work is to review the fundamental studies that support the consumption of wholegrain cereals and bread to prevent chronic diseases.
Descriptive review considering human studies.
Subjects included in randomised intervention trials and cohort studies from different countries published up to 2010.
Several studies show consistently that subjects who ingest three or more portions of foods per day based on wholegrain cereals have a 20-30 % lower risk of CVD than subjects who ingest low quantities of cereals. This level of protection is not observed with the ingestion of refined cereals, these being even higher than with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Likewise, high intake of wholegrain cereals and their products, such as whole-wheat bread, is associated with a 20-30 % reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Finally, protection against the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps, other cancers of the digestive tract, cancers related to hormones and pancreatic cancer has been associated with the regular consumption of wholegrain cereals and derived products.
The regular intake of wholegrain cereals can contribute to reduction of risk factors related to non-communicable chronic diseases.

Download full-text


Available from: Rosa María Ortega, Sep 15, 2014
69 Reads
  • Source
    • "Plant foods are the main source of nutrients such as slow-release carbohydrate and fiber, vegetable protein, beneficial minerals, antioxidant vitamins, and polyphenols that contribute to an optimal nutrition, satiety, and maintenance of a balanced diet. The group of cereals is found in the main meals, preferably consumed as whole grains, emphasizing the importance of a high fiber content in the diet [1, 3, 36]. In our study, greater fiber intake in MeDiet groups may be related to lower dietary GL and GI. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective. To compare the one year effect of two dietary interventions with MeDiet on GL and GI in the PREDIMED trial. Methods. Participants were older subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This analysis included 2866 nondiabetic subjects. Diet was assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The GI of each FFQ item was assigned by a 5-step methodology using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess the relationship between the intervention group and dietary GL and GI at one year of follow-up, using control group as reference. Results. Multivariate-adjusted models showed an inverse association between GL and MeDiet + extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) group: 𝛽 = −8.52 (95% CI: −10.83 to −6.20) and MeDiet + Nuts group: 𝛽 = −10.34 (95% CI: −12.69 to −8.00), when comparing with control group. Regarding GI, 𝛽 = −0.93 (95% CI: −1.38 to −0.49) for MeDiet + EVOO, 𝛽 = −1.06 (95% CI: −1.51 to −0.62) for MeDiet + Nuts when comparing with control group. Conclusion. Dietary intervention with MeDiet supplemented with EVOO or nuts lowers dietary GL and GI.
    Journal of nutrition and metabolism 09/2014; 2014(Article ID 985373,):10. DOI:10.1155/2014/985373
  • Source
    • "In response to the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a reduced intake of fat, sugar and salt, and a higher intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts, while maintaining energy balance and healthy weight [1]. The vegetarian diet [2,3], among others such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean and Japanese diets, may offer benefits for reducing risk of NCDs [2,4]. Evidence on the health benefits of a vegetarian diet from long-term cohort studies in the West, such as EPIC-OXFORD and the Adventist Health study II, show positive cardiovascular, cancer, mental health and overall mortality effects [5-9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The cardiovascular and other health benefits and potential harms of protein and micronutrient deficiency of vegetarian diets continue to be debated. Methods Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents (n = 6555, mean age - 40.9 yrs) of the Indian Migration Study from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood and anthropometric measurements were collected. Nutrient databases were used to calculate nutrient content of regional recipes. Vegetarians ate no eggs, fish, poultry and meat. Using multivariate linear regression with robust standard error model, we compared the macro- and micro-nutrient profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Results Vegetarians, (32.8% of the population), consumed greater amounts of legumes, vegetables, roots and tubers, dairy and sugar, while non-vegetarians had a greater intake of cereals, fruits, spices, salt (p < 0.01), fats and oils. Vegetarians had a higher socioeconomic status, and were less likely to smoke, drink alcohol (p < 0.0001) and engage in less physical activity (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, vegetarians consumed more carbohydrates (β = 7.0 g/day (95% CI: 9.9 to 4.0), p < 0.0001), vitamin C (β = 8.7 mg/day (95% CI: 4.3 to13.0), p < 0.0001) and folate (β = 8.0 mcg/day (95% CI: 3.3 to 12.7), p = 0.001) and lower levels of fat (β = −1.6 g/day (95% CI: −0.62 to −2.7), p = 0.002), protein (β = −6.4 g/day (95% CI: −5.8 to −7.0), p < 0.0001), vitamin B12 (β = −1.4 mcg/day (95% CI: −1.2 to −1.5), p < 0.0001) and zinc (β = −0.6 mg/day (95% CI: −0.4 to −0.7), p < 0.0001). Conclusion Overall, Indian vegetarian diets were found to be adequate to sustain nutritional demands according to recommended dietary allowances with less fat. Lower vitamin B12 bio-availability remains a concern and requires exploration of acceptable dietary sources for vegetarians.
    Nutrition Journal 06/2014; 13(1):55. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-55 · 2.60 Impact Factor
    • "In fact, in acute experimental settings, a reduction in insulin response has been reported with whole kernel rye/whole rye bread when compared with white wheat bread. This has been confirmed in longer term experimental conditions (2e4 weeks) that demonstrated a reduction of both insulin and glucose post-prandial responses after a whole grain rye or wheat diet in overweight men (Gil et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Starch and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fibre) of cereal grains contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereal products, including reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. The physiological bases for these effects are reviewed in relation to the structures and physical properties of the polysaccharides and their behaviour (including digestion and fermentation) in the gastro-intestinal tract. Strategies for modifying the content and composition of grain polysaccharides to increase their health benefits are discussed, including exploiting natural variation and using mutagenesis and transgenesis to generate further variation. These studies will facilitate the development of new types of cereals and cereal products to face the major health challenges of the 21st century.
    Journal of Cereal Science 05/2014; 59(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2014.01.001 · 2.09 Impact Factor
Show more