Wholegrain cereals and bread: A duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Centre for Biomedical Research (CIB), Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain.
Public Health Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.48). 12/2011; 14(12A):2316-22. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980011002576
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Wholegrain cereals are rich in nutrients and many phytochemical compounds, with recognised benefits for health, including dietary fibre, a number of phenolic compounds, lignans, vitamins and minerals and other bioactive components. The aim of the present work is to review the fundamental studies that support the consumption of wholegrain cereals and bread to prevent chronic diseases.
Descriptive review considering human studies.
Subjects included in randomised intervention trials and cohort studies from different countries published up to 2010.
Several studies show consistently that subjects who ingest three or more portions of foods per day based on wholegrain cereals have a 20-30 % lower risk of CVD than subjects who ingest low quantities of cereals. This level of protection is not observed with the ingestion of refined cereals, these being even higher than with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Likewise, high intake of wholegrain cereals and their products, such as whole-wheat bread, is associated with a 20-30 % reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Finally, protection against the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps, other cancers of the digestive tract, cancers related to hormones and pancreatic cancer has been associated with the regular consumption of wholegrain cereals and derived products.
The regular intake of wholegrain cereals can contribute to reduction of risk factors related to non-communicable chronic diseases.

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Available from: Rosa María Ortega, Sep 15, 2014
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    • "In fact, in acute experimental settings, a reduction in insulin response has been reported with whole kernel rye/whole rye bread when compared with white wheat bread. This has been confirmed in longer term experimental conditions (2e4 weeks) that demonstrated a reduction of both insulin and glucose post-prandial responses after a whole grain rye or wheat diet in overweight men (Gil et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Starch and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fibre) of cereal grains contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereal products, including reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. The physiological bases for these effects are reviewed in relation to the structures and physical properties of the polysaccharides and their behaviour (including digestion and fermentation) in the gastro-intestinal tract. Strategies for modifying the content and composition of grain polysaccharides to increase their health benefits are discussed, including exploiting natural variation and using mutagenesis and transgenesis to generate further variation. These studies will facilitate the development of new types of cereals and cereal products to face the major health challenges of the 21st century.
    Journal of Cereal Science 05/2014; 59(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2014.01.001 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    • "The beneficial health effects of plant-derived products have been largely attributed to polyphenolic compounds, as well as vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]. Although the positive role of antioxidant vitamins in the metabolic syndrome is still controversial [29] [30] [31], interesting data suggests that high levels of vitamin D are related to a lower risk of developing T2D [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional overload and a sedentary life-style are directly associated with the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is inversely correlated to the incidence of T2D, being these beneficial effects largely attributed to phenolic compounds. Human studies using the most promising polyphenol-rich foods to ameliorate T2D have not been as successful as in vitro and animal studies have pointed out, evidencing the need for new approaches in order to reduce this current gap. Nevertheless, modern techniques have not only optimized the extraction and the characterization of phenolic metabolites, but have also allowed a better understanding of the impact of polyphenols on the gut microbiota. In this article we provide an overview of the mechanisms implicated in the beneficial metabolic effects of polyphenols and we highlight the investigation of the metabolomes associated to the ingestion of polyphenol-rich foods. These strategies will help in the identification of bioactive phenolic metabolites from various fruits and plants, leading to the discovery of novel cultivars to generate more potent functional foods and nutraceuticals against T2D.
    10/2013; 1(4):105–114. DOI:10.1016/j.phanu.2013.07.004
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    • "In recent years the role of bioactive phenolic compounds as protective dietary constituents has become an increasingly important area of human nutrition research [12]. Unlike the traditional vitamins, they are not essential for short-term well-being, but there is increasing evidences that modest longterm intakes may exhibit a potential for modulating human metabolism in a favourable manner contributing to the beneficial effects of fruit-and vegetable-rich diets [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]. Phenolic compounds consist in one or more benzenic ring with each containing at least one hydroxyl group (–OH). "
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