Tracking Blood Glucose and Predicting Prediabetes in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A Prospective Twin Study
ABSTRACT We examined the tracking of blood glucose, the development of prediabetes, and estimated their genetic contributions in a prospective, healthy, rural Chinese twin cohort. This report includes 1,766 subjects (998 males, 768 females) aged 6-21 years at baseline who completed a 6-year follow-up study. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed for all subjects at both baseline and follow-up. We found that subjects with low fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or 2 h post-load glucose (PG) levels at baseline tended to remain at the low level at follow-up. Subjects in the top tertile of baseline plasma glucose tended to have a higher risk of developing prediabetes at follow-up compared to the low tertile: in males, 37.6% vs. 27.6% for FPG and 37.2% vs. 25.7% for 2hPG, respectively; in females, 31.0% vs. 15.4% for FPG and 28.9% vs. 15.1% for 2 h PG, respectively. Genetic factors explained 43% and 41% of the variance of FPG, and 72% and 47% for impaired fasting glucose for males and females, respectively; environmental factors substantially contribute to 2hPG status and impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, in this cohort of healthy rural Chinese children and adolescents, we demonstrated that both FPG and 2hPG tracked well and was a strong predictor of prediabetes. The high proportion of children with top tertile of blood glucose progressed to prediabetes, and the incidence of prediabetes has a male predominance. Genetic factors play more important role in fasting than postload status, most of which was explained by unique environmental factors.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Lester M Arguelles, May 27, 2015
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ABSTRACT: In this cohort of severely obese children and adolescents in Sweden we investigate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance, (IGT) and silent type 2 diabetes (T2D), in relation to insulin resistance, insulin secretion, disposition index and cardio respiratory fitness. A total of 134 obese children and adolescents [57 females, 77 males, age 13.7 ± 2.7, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) 3.6 ± 0.6] consecutively referred to the National Childhood Obesity Centre performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (fs-IVGTT), dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bicycle ergometer test and fasting levels of glucose, insulin and c-peptide were obtained and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) were present in 35.8 and 6% had isolated IGT. Combined IGT and IFG were present in 14.2%. The subjects with combined IGT/IFG had significantly lower acute insulin response (AIR) compared with subjects who had normal glucose metabolism or i-IFG (p < 0.05). Among the prepubertal children (n = 24), 25% (6/24) had i-IFG and 25% (6/24) had IGT/IFG and it was predominantly males. Disposition index was the major determinant of 2-h glucose levels (β = -0.49, p = 0.0126). No silent diabetes was detected. In this cohort of severely obese children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetes was very high. IFG was two times higher in this cohort of severely obese children than in a recently published unselected cohort of obese children in Sweden. In spite of the high prevalence of prediabetes, no subjects with silent diabetes were found.Pediatric Diabetes 03/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1111/pedi.12136 · 2.13 Impact Factor