Selected medical conditions and risk of pancreatic cancer
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. Molecular Carcinogenesis
(Impact Factor: 4.81).
01/2012; 51(1):75-97. DOI: 10.1002/mc.20816
We review the current evidence for associations of several medical conditions with risk of pancreatic cancer, including allergies, pancreatitis, gall bladder disease, cholecystectomy, ulcers, gastrectomy, appendectomy, and tonsillectomy. There are consistent findings of reduced risk associated with presence of self-reported allergies, particularly hay fever but not asthma; data on other allergies are limited and inconclusive. Several studies provide evidence that patients with pancreatic cancer are more likely than comparison groups to report pancreatitis. Those studies that investigated the time between onset of pancreatitis and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer found that risk estimates declined with longer periods of time; however, increased risks were noted for long-term pancreatitis, indicating that this condition is both a risk factor and a sign of early disease. Increased risk was reported in association with cholelithiasis, but the few studies that considered time before diagnosis of cancer did not find increased risk for cholelithiasis diagnosed in the more distant past. There is weak evidence that cholecystectomy 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis is related to risk, but this is based on only a few studies. There is no consistent association between ulcers and risk, while gastrectomy may increase risk. Overall, study of these conditions, particularly those that are rare, presents methodologic challenges. Time between diagnoses is likely to be important but is not considered in most studies. Lack of adequate control in several studies for risk factors such as smoking and heavy alcohol use also makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about these results.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "Furthermore, elevated risk was the highest for recent cholecystectomy (p2 years before cancer diagnosis) but remained statistically significant for remote cholecystectomy (X20 years). Current epidemiologic evidence for associations between selected medical conditions and pancreatic cancer risk is controversial (Olson, 2012). Of 13 studies that have evaluated cholecystectomy and/or gallstones in relation to the occurrence of this malignancy (Lin and Kessler, 1981; Ekbom et al, 1996; Gullo et al, 1996; Chow et al, 1999; Coughlin et al, 2000; Silverman, 2001; Talamini et al, 2001; Ye et al, 2001; Lin et al, 2002; Schernhammer et al, 2002; Stolzenberg-Solomon et al, 2002; Hassan et al, 2007; Lipworth et al, 2011), four studies reported an increased risk for subjects with a history of cholecystectomy (Ekbom et al, 1996; Coughlin et al, 2000; Silverman, 2001; Lin et al, 2002). "
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Associations between medical conditions and pancreatic cancer risk are controversial and are thus evaluated in a study conducted during 1994–1998 in Minnesota.
Cases (n=215) were ascertained from hospitals in the metropolitan area of the Twin Cities and the Mayo Clinic. Controls (n=676) were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched to cases by age and sex. The history of medical conditions was gathered with a questionnaire during in-person interviews. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.
After adjustment for confounders, subjects who had cholecystectomy or gallstones experienced a significantly higher risk of pancreatic cancer than those who did not (OR (95% CI): 2.11 (1.32–3.35) for cholecystectomy and 1.97 (1.23–3.12) for gallstones), whereas opposite results were observed for tonsillectomy (0.67 (0.48–0.94)). Increased risk associated with cholecystectomy was the greatest when it occurred ⩽2 years before the cancer diagnosis (5.93 (2.36–15.7)) but remained statistically significant when that interval was ⩾20 years (2.27 (1.16–4.32)).
Cholecystectomy, gallstones, and tonsillectomy were associated with an altered risk of pancreatic cancer. Our study suggests that cholecystectomy increased risk but reverse causality may partially account for high risk associated with recent cholecystectomy.
British Journal of Cancer 03/2014; 110(9). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.154 · 4.84 Impact Factor
Available from: Li Jiao
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ABSTRACT: Four loci have been associated with pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Pathway-based analysis of GWAS data is a complementary approach to identify groups of genes or biological pathways enriched with disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose individual effect sizes may be too small to be detected by standard single-locus methods. We used the adaptive rank truncated product method in a pathway-based analysis of GWAS data from 3851 pancreatic cancer cases and 3934 control participants pooled from 12 cohort studies and 8 case-control studies (PanScan). We compiled 23 biological pathways hypothesized to be relevant to pancreatic cancer and observed a nominal association between pancreatic cancer and five pathways (P < 0.05), i.e. pancreatic development, Helicobacter pylori lacto/neolacto, hedgehog, Th1/Th2 immune response and apoptosis (P = 2.0 × 10(-6), 1.6 × 10(-5), 0.0019, 0.019 and 0.023, respectively). After excluding previously identified genes from the original GWAS in three pathways (NR5A2, ABO and SHH), the pancreatic development pathway remained significant (P = 8.3 × 10(-5)), whereas the others did not. The most significant genes (P < 0.01) in the five pathways were NR5A2, HNF1A, HNF4G and PDX1 for pancreatic development; ABO for H.pylori lacto/neolacto; SHH for hedgehog; TGFBR2 and CCL18 for Th1/Th2 immune response and MAPK8 and BCL2L11 for apoptosis. Our results provide a link between inherited variation in genes important for pancreatic development and cancer and show that pathway-based approaches to analysis of GWAS data can yield important insights into the collective role of genetic risk variants in cancer.
Carcinogenesis 04/2012; 33(7):1384-90. DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgs151 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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Pancreatitis is a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer; however, an unknown fraction of the disease is thought to be a consequence of tumor-related duct obstruction.
Patients and methods:
A pooled analysis of a history of pancreatitis and risk of pancreatic cancer was carried out considering the time interval between diagnoses and potential modification by covariates. Adjusted pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from 10 case-control studies (5048 cases of ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 10,947 controls) taking part in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4).
The association between pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer was nearly three-fold at intervals of >2 years between diagnoses (OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.96-3.74) and much stronger at intervals of ≤2 years (OR: 13.56, 95% CI: 8.72-21.90) probably reflecting a combination of reverse causation and antecedent misdiagnosis of pancreas cancer as pancreatitis. The younger (<65 years) pancreatic cancer cases showed stronger associations with previous (>2 years) pancreatitis (OR: 3.91, 95% CI: 2.53-6.04) than the older (≥65 years) cases (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02-2.76; P value for interaction: 0.006).
Despite a moderately strong association between pancreatitis (diagnosed before >2 years) and pancreatic cancer, the population attributable fraction was estimated at 1.34% (95% CI: 0.612-2.07%), suggesting that a relatively small proportion of pancreatic cancer might be avoided if pancreatitis could be prevented.
Annals of Oncology 07/2012; 23(11):2964-70. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mds140 · 7.04 Impact Factor
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