Selected medical conditions and risk of pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT We review the current evidence for associations of several medical conditions with risk of pancreatic cancer, including allergies, pancreatitis, gall bladder disease, cholecystectomy, ulcers, gastrectomy, appendectomy, and tonsillectomy. There are consistent findings of reduced risk associated with presence of self-reported allergies, particularly hay fever but not asthma; data on other allergies are limited and inconclusive. Several studies provide evidence that patients with pancreatic cancer are more likely than comparison groups to report pancreatitis. Those studies that investigated the time between onset of pancreatitis and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer found that risk estimates declined with longer periods of time; however, increased risks were noted for long-term pancreatitis, indicating that this condition is both a risk factor and a sign of early disease. Increased risk was reported in association with cholelithiasis, but the few studies that considered time before diagnosis of cancer did not find increased risk for cholelithiasis diagnosed in the more distant past. There is weak evidence that cholecystectomy 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis is related to risk, but this is based on only a few studies. There is no consistent association between ulcers and risk, while gastrectomy may increase risk. Overall, study of these conditions, particularly those that are rare, presents methodologic challenges. Time between diagnoses is likely to be important but is not considered in most studies. Lack of adequate control in several studies for risk factors such as smoking and heavy alcohol use also makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about these results.
- Pancreas 07/2014; 43(5):812-814. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:Associations between medical conditions and pancreatic cancer risk are controversial and are thus evaluated in a study conducted during 1994-1998 in Minnesota.Methods:Cases (n=215) were ascertained from hospitals in the metropolitan area of the Twin Cities and the Mayo Clinic. Controls (n=676) were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched to cases by age and sex. The history of medical conditions was gathered with a questionnaire during in-person interviews. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.Results:After adjustment for confounders, subjects who had cholecystectomy or gallstones experienced a significantly higher risk of pancreatic cancer than those who did not (OR (95% CI): 2.11 (1.32-3.35) for cholecystectomy and 1.97 (1.23-3.12) for gallstones), whereas opposite results were observed for tonsillectomy (0.67 (0.48-0.94)). Increased risk associated with cholecystectomy was the greatest when it occurred 2 years before the cancer diagnosis (5.93 (2.36-15.7)) but remained statistically significant when that interval was 20 years (2.27 (1.16-4.32)).Conclusions:Cholecystectomy, gallstones, and tonsillectomy were associated with an altered risk of pancreatic cancer. Our study suggests that cholecystectomy increased risk but reverse causality may partially account for high risk associated with recent cholecystectomy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 25 March 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.154 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 03/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:Epidemiologic studies have consistently found that self-reported allergies are associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Our aim was to prospectively assess the relationship between serum IgE, a marker of allergy, and risk. Methods: This nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) included subjects enrolled in 1994-2001 and followed through 2010. There were 283 cases of pancreatic cancer and 544 controls matched on age, gender, race, and calendar date of blood draw. Using the ImmunoCAP system, we measured total IgE (normal, borderline, elevated), IgE to respiratory allergens, and IgE to food allergens (negative or positive) in serum collected at baseline. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. We assessed interactions with age, gender, smoking, body mass index, and time between randomization and case diagnosis. Results:Overall, there was no association between the IgE measures and risk. We found a statistically significant interaction by baseline age: in those aged >65, elevated risks were observed for borderline total IgE (OR=1.43; 95% CI, 0.88-2.32) and elevated total IgE (OR=1.98; 95% CI, 1.16-3.37) and positive IgE to food allergens (OR=2.83; 95% CI, 1.29-6.20); among participants <65, ORs were <1. Other interactions were not statistically significant. Conclusions:The reduced risk of pancreatic cancer associated with self-reported allergies is not reflected in serum IgE. Among older participants, higher total IgE and IgE to food allergens significantly increased risk. Impact:The association of pancreatic cancer risk with allergies is not reflected in serum IgE.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 04/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor