Variation in physical and chemical characteristics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grain along a domestication gradient.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare six samples of Mexican wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against three landraces and three improved cultivars with respect to physical and chemical attributes, and the culinary quality potential of their grain. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize the twelve genotypes. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and pair-wise comparison of the treatment means by the Tukey test. In addition, correlation and principal-component analysis (PCA) were carried out using twelve characteristics of raw and four of cooked wild and domesticated grains. The results show a larger variability of the physical and chemical characteristics in wild than in domesticated beans. The PCA confirmed that grain gigantism was the main physical characteristic resulting of domestication, whereas the protein and tryptophan contents tended to be higher in wild than domesticated genotypes. Some wild samples from Chihuahua and Durango, Mexico, showed to be a genetic resource to improve food quality, because of their richness in minerals, protein, lysine, tryptophan, and dietary fibers.
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ABSTRACT: Common bean effects on health have been related to its dietary fiber content and other active compounds. This study assessed the content of flavonoids, coumestrol, phenolic acids, galactooligosaccharides, and phytic acid in wild and cultivated Mexican common bean seeds (raw and cooked) and that of flavonoids, coumestrol, and phenolic acids in germinated bean seeds. The presence of isoflavones in raw bean seeds was not confirmed by the UV spectra. Quercetin, kaempferol, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid mean contents were 10.9, 52.3, 10.1, 9.6, 5.4, and 18.2 microg/g, respectively; raffinose, stachyose, verbascose, and phytic acid mean contents were 8.5, 56.3, 5.5, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively, in raw seeds. All compounds were affected by autoclaving, and germination resulted in a de novo synthesis of flavonols, phytoestrogens, and phenolic acids. The impact on health of common bean seed is affected by dietary burden, specific compounds content, and processing. On the other hand, germinated bean seed or beans sprouts may be sources of antioxidants and phytoestrogens.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2006; 54(6):2045-52. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Root anatomical responses to water deficit are diverse and regulation of water uptake strongly depends on plant anatomy. The ancestors of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars are the wild common beans. Because wild beans adapt and survive well in the natural environment, it is hypothesized that wild common bean roots are less affected than those of domesticated beans at low substrate water potential (ψW). A wild common bean accession from Chihuahua Mexico and cv. Bayomex were studied. Seedlings with a mean root length between 3 and 4 cm were maintained for 24 h in vermiculite at ψW of -0.03 (well hydrated), -0.65, -1.48 and -2.35 MPa (partially dry). Ten anatomical characteristics of differentiation and cell division in root regions were evaluated. Thickness of epidermis and protoderm diminished similarly in wild and domesticated beans growing at low substrate ψW (between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa). At the same time, parenchymatic cell area diminished by 71 % in the domesticated variety, but by only 32 % in the wild bean at -2.35 MPa. The number of cells in the cortex and the thickness of the xylem wall increased in both wild and domesticated beans at low substrate ψW; nevertheless, the effect was significantly lower in the wild bean. The number of xylem vessels increased in the cultivar (up to 40 %) while in the wild bean it decreased (up to 33 %). The diameter of xylem vessels and transverse root area diminished (15 and 57 %, respectively) in the cultivar, but in the wild common bean were not affected. Anatomical root characteristics and their modifications in both differentiation and cell division in root regions demonstrated that the wild bean reacted quite differently to substrate ψW than the domesticated common bean.Biological research 01/2010; 43(4):417-27. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of the administration of blackgram fiber (Phaseolus mungo) on the metabolism of carbohydrates was studied in rats fed 30% NDF (neutral detergent fiber) diet. The experimental group showed a significant increase in liver glycogen level and a significant decrease in blood glucose. Significant increases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were observed in the experimental group. The activities of phosphoglucomutase and glucose-6-phosphatase were significantly lower in rats fed the fiber diet. The study showed that blackgram fiber exhibits significant hypoglycemic action in experimental animals.Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 02/2003; 58(1):7-13. · 2.36 Impact Factor