The objective of this study was to compare six samples of Mexican wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against three landraces and three improved cultivars with respect to physical and chemical attributes, and the culinary quality potential of their grain. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize the twelve genotypes. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and pair-wise comparison of the treatment means by the Tukey test. In addition, correlation and principal-component analysis (PCA) were carried out using twelve characteristics of raw and four of cooked wild and domesticated grains. The results show a larger variability of the physical and chemical characteristics in wild than in domesticated beans. The PCA confirmed that grain gigantism was the main physical characteristic resulting of domestication, whereas the protein and tryptophan contents tended to be higher in wild than domesticated genotypes. Some wild samples from Chihuahua and Durango, Mexico, showed to be a genetic resource to improve food quality, because of their richness in minerals, protein, lysine, tryptophan, and dietary fibers.
"Consumers of common bean take nutritional, industrial and commercial traits into consideration, and the most important traits are grain size, seed coat color, mechanical damage and cooking time (Peña-Valdivia et al., 2011). Cooking time should be considered by common bean breeding programs since cooking is required for consumption of these grains. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) trials are undertaken when evaluating improved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines, and knowledge of agronomic and market-related traits and disease reaction is instrumental in making cultivar recommendations. This study evaluates the yield, cooking time, grain color and reaction to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli) and Curtobacterium wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens) of 25 common bean genotypes derived from the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Seventeen VCU trials were carried out in the rainy season, dry season and winter season from 2009 to 2011 in the state of Sao Paulo. Analyses of grain color and cooking time were initiated 60 days after harvest, and disease reaction analyses were performed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. In terms of yield, no genotype superior to the controls was observed for any of the seasons under consideration. Grains from the dry season exhibited better color, while the rainy season led to the shortest cooking times. The following genotypes BRS Esteio, BRS Esplendor and IAC Imperador were resistant to anthracnose, Fusarium wilt and Curtobacterium wilt and, in general, genotypes with lighter-colored grains were more susceptible to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt.
Scientia Agricola 01/2015; 72(1):34-40. DOI:10.1590/0103-9016-2013-0172 · 0.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gradient of domestication based on morphological characteristics has been observed in species of Opuntia genus; but, a biophysical and physiological gradient have been not described. This study aimed to quantify biophysical and physiological characteristics in nopalitos (edible young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of 15 variants of five Opuntia species in a domestication gradient, including wild (O. streptacantha Lem.), semi-wild (O. hyptiacantha F.A.C. Weber), semi-domesticated (O. megacantha Salm-Dyck), more domesticated (O. albicarpa Scheinvar), and that recognized with the highest degree of domestication [O. ficus-indica (L.) Miller]. We hypothesized that biophysical and physiological characteristics of nopalitos are modified throughout the domestication process and that such changes will be evident when variants with different degree of domestication are grown under drought conditions. Tissue firmness, water potential (ψW), osmotic potential (ψπ), content of total soluble solids (TSS), content of malic acid, and membranes permeability were evaluated in nopalitos harvested from plants after 60 days without watering. A randomized design, with six replications and a plant as experimental unit by treatment, was used. The data were analysed by ANOVA, multiple comparisons of means by Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05) among variants and species, and multivariate analysis of principal components. Firmness (from 4.6 ± 0.082 to 6.8 ± 0.053 kgf/cm2), TSS (from 4.86 ± 0.105 to 6.33 ± 0.142 °Brix), membrane permeability (from 26 ± 0.712 to 31 ± 0.474 (µS cm−1)/g−1) and malic acid content (from 0.61 ± 0.008 to 0.82 ± 0.014 g 100 g−1 wet matter) increased during domestication, and simultaneously ψW and ψS decreased (from −0.85 ± 0.034 to −1.1 ± 0.030 MPa and −1.01 ± 0.011 to −1.15 ± 0.011 MPa). The firmness, SST and ψS are the main characteristics that contributed to separate the Opuntia species on the gradient of domestication. Opuntia species on a domestication gradient based on morphometric characteristics of plants (cladodes, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits) correlate to biophysical and physiological characteristics of nopalitos.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Lipophilic antioxidants play dual key roles in edible seeds (i) as preservatives of cell integrity and seed viability by preventing the oxidation of fats, and (ii) as essential nutrients for human and animal life stock. It has been well documented that plant domestication and post-domestication evolution frequently resulted in increased seed size and palatability, and reduced seed dormancy. Nevertheless, and surprisingly, it is poorly understood how agricultural selection and cultivation affected the physiological fitness and the nutritional quality of seeds. Fabaceae have the greatest number of crop species of all plant families, and most of them are cultivated for their highly nutritious edible seeds. Here, we evaluate whether evolution of plants under cultivation has altered the integrated system formed by membranes (fatty acids) and lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocopherols), in the ten most economically important grain legumes and their closest wild relatives, i.e.: Arachis(peanut), Cicer(chickpea), Glycine(soybean), Lathyrus(vetch), Lens(lentil), Lupinus(lupin), Phaseolus(bean), Pisum(pea), Vicia(faba bean) and Vigna(cowpea).ResultsUnexpectedly, we found that following domestication, the contents of carotenoids, including lutein and zeaxanthin, decreased in all ten species (total carotenoid content decreased 48% in average). Furthermore, the composition of carotenoids changed, whereby some carotenoids were lost in most of the crops. An undirected change in the contents of tocopherols and fatty acids was found, with contents increasing in some species and decreasing in others, independently of the changes in carotenoids. In some species, polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid especially), ¿-tocopherol and ¿-tocopherol decreased following domestication.Conclusions
The changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids are likely side-effects of the selection for other desired traits such as the loss of seed dormancy and dispersal mechanisms, and selection for seed storability and taste. This work may serve as baseline to broaden our knowledge on the integrated changes on crop fitness and nutritional quality following domestication.
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