Down-regulation of microRNA-34a* in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts promotes apoptosis resistance.
ABSTRACT To investigate the expression and effect of the microRNA-34 (miR-34) family on apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs).
Expression of the miR-34 family in synovial fibroblasts with or without stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), hypoxia, or 5-azacytidine was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Promoter methylation was studied by combined bisulfite restriction analysis. The effects of overexpression and silencing of miR-34a and miR-34a* on apoptosis were analyzed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Production of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis. Reporter gene assay was used to study the signaling pathways of miR-34a*.
Basal expression levels of miR-34a* were found to be reduced in synovial fibroblasts from RA patients compared to osteoarthritis patients, whereas levels of miR-34a, miR-34b/b*, and miR-34c/c* did not differ. Neither TNFα, IL-1β, TLR ligands, nor hypoxia altered miR-34a* expression. However, we demonstrated that the promoter of miR-34a/34a* was methylated and showed that transcription of the miR-34a duplex was induced upon treatment with demethylating agents. Enforced expression of miR-34a* led to an increased rate of FasL- and TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in RASFs. Moreover, levels of miR-34a* were highly correlated with expression of XIAP, which was found to be up-regulated in RA synovial cells. Finally, we identified XIAP as a direct target of miR-34a*.
Our data provide evidence of a methylation-specific down-regulation of proapoptotic miR-34a* in RASFs. Decreased expression of miR- 34a* results in up-regulation of its direct target XIAP, thereby contributing to resistance of RASFs to apoptosis.
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNA) have recently emerged as a new class of modulators of gene expression. In this study we investigated the expression, regulation, and function of miR-155 and miR-146a in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) and RA synovial tissue. Locked nucleic acid microarray was used to screen for differentially expressed miRNA in RASFs treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to measure the levels of miR-155 and miR-146a. Enforced overexpression of miR-155 was used to investigate the function of miR-155 in RASFs. Microarray analysis of miRNA expressed in RASFs treated with TNFalpha revealed a prominent up-regulation of miR-155. Constitutive expression of both miR-155 and miR-146a was higher in RASFs than in those from patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and expression of miR-155 could be further induced by TNFalpha, interleukin-1beta, lipopolysaccharide, poly(I-C), and bacterial lipoprotein. The expression of miR-155 in RA synovial tissue was higher than in OA synovial tissue. Enforced expression of miR-155 in RASFs was found to repress the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and reduce the induction of MMPs 3 and 1 by Toll-like receptor ligands and cytokines. Moreover, compared with monocytes from RA peripheral blood, RA synovial fluid monocytes displayed higher levels of miR-155. This study provides the first description of increased expression of miRNA miR-155 and miR-146a in RA. Based on these findings, we postulate that the inflammatory milieu may alter miRNA expression profiles in resident cells of the rheumatoid joints. Considering the repressive effect of miR-155 on the expression of MMPs 3 and 1 in RASFs, we hypothesize that miR-155 may be involved in modulation of the destructive properties of RASFs.Arthritis & Rheumatology 05/2008; 58(4):1001-9. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: XIAP is a member of the inhibitors-of-apoptosis family of proteins, which inhibit caspases and block cell death, with prognostic importance in AML. Here we demonstrate that cytokines regulate the expression of XIAP in leukemic cell lines and primary AML blasts. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) with LY294002 and of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade by PD98059 resulted in decreased XIAP levels (34+/-8.7 and 23+/-5.7%, respectively). We then generated OCI-AML3 cells with constitutively phosphorylated Akt (p473-Akt) by retroviral gene transfer. Neither these nor Akt inhibitor-treated OCI-AML3 cells showed changes in XIAP levels, suggesting that XIAP expression is regulated by PI3K downstream effectors other than Akt. The induction of XIAP expression by cytokines through PI3K/MAPK pathways is consistent with its role in cell survival. Exposure of leukemic cells to chemotherapeutic agents decreased XIAP protein levels by caspase-dependent XIAP cleavage. Targeting XIAP by XIAP antisense oligonucleotide resulted in downregulation of XIAP, activation of caspases and cell death, and sensitized HL-60 cells to Ara-C. Our results suggest that XIAP is regulated by cytokines through PI3K, and to a lesser degree through MAPK pathways. Selective downregulation of XIAP expression might be of therapeutic benefit to leukemic patients.Leukemia 12/2003; 17(11):2081-9. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family member capable of inducing apoptosis in many cell types. Using immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and real-time PCR we investigated the expression of TRAIL, TRAIL receptors and several key molecules of the intracellular apoptotic pathway in human synovial tissues from various types of arthritis and normal controls. Synovial tissues from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inactive RA, osteoarthritis (OA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA) and normal individuals were studied. Significantly higher levels of TRAIL, TRAIL R1, TRAIL R2 and TRAIL R4 were observed in synovial tissues from patients with active RA compared with normal controls (p < 0.05). TRAIL, TRAIL R1 and TRAIL R4 were expressed by many of the cells expressing CD68 (macrophages). Lower levels of TUNEL but higher levels of cleaved caspase-3 staining were detected in tissue from active RA compared with inactive RA patients (p < 0.05). Higher levels of survivin and x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (xIAP) were expressed in active RA synovial tissues compared with inactive RA observed at both the protein and mRNA levels. This study indicates that the induction of apoptosis in active RA synovial tissues is inhibited despite stimulation of the intracellular pathway(s) that lead to apoptosis. This inhibition of apoptosis was observed downstream of caspase-3 and may involve the caspase-3 inhibitors, survivin and xIAP.Arthritis research & therapy 02/2009; 11(1):R13. · 4.27 Impact Factor