Inhibition of microRNA-17 improves lung and heart function in experimental pulmonary hypertension.
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRs) control various cellular processes in tissue homeostasis and disease by regulating gene expression on the posttranscriptional level. Recently, it was demonstrated that the expression of miR-21 and members of the miR-17-92 cluster was significantly altered in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH).
To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and antiremodeling potential of miR inhibitors in the pathogenesis of PH.
We first tested the effects of miR inhibitors (antagomirs), which were specifically designed to block miR-17 (A-17), miR-21 (A-21), and miR-92a (A-92a) in chronic hypoxia-induced PH in mice and A-17 in monocrotaline-induced PH in rats. Moreover, biological function of miR-17 was analyzed in cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.
In the PH mouse model, A-17 and A-21 reduced right ventricular systolic pressure, and all antagomirs decreased pulmonary arterial muscularization. However, only A-17 reduced hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and improved pulmonary artery acceleration time. In the monocrotaline-induced PH rat model, A-17 treatment significantly decreased right ventricular systolic pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance index, increased pulmonary artery acceleration time, normalized cardiac output, and decreased pulmonary vascular remodeling. Among the tested miR-17 targets, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21) was up-regulated in lungs undergoing A-17 treatment. Likewise, in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, A-17 increased p21. Overexpression of miR-17 significantly reduced p21 expression and increased proliferation of smooth muscle cells.
Our data demonstrate that A-17 improves heart and lung function in experimental PH by interfering with lung vascular and right ventricular remodeling. The beneficial effects may be related to the up-regulation of p21. Thus, inhibition of miR-17 may represent a novel therapeutic concept to ameliorate disease state in PH.
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ABSTRACT: The miR-17-92 cluster of microRNAs is elevated in colorectal cancer, and has a causative role in cancer development. Of the six miR-17-92 cluster members, miR-19a and b in particular are key promoters of cancer development and cell proliferation, while preliminary evidence suggests that miR-18a may act in opposition to other cluster members to decrease cell proliferation. It was hypothesised that miR-18a may have a homeostatic function in helping to contain the oncogenic effect of the entire miR-17-92 cluster, and that elevated miR-17-92 cluster activity without a corresponding increase in miR-18a may promote colorectal tumour progression. In colorectal cancer samples and corresponding normal colorectal mucosa, miR-18a displayed lower overall expression than other miR-17-92 cluster members. miR-18a was shown to have an opposing role to other miR-17-92 cluster members, in particular the key oncogenic miRNAs, miR-19a and b. Transfection of HCT116 and LIM1215 colorectal cancer cell lines with miR-18a mimics decreased proliferation, while a miR-18a inhibitor increased proliferation. miR-18a was also responsible for decreasing cell migration, altering cell morphology, inducing G1/S phase cell cycle arrest, increasing apoptosis, and enhancing the action of a pro-apoptotic agent. CDC42, a mediator of the PI3K pathway, was identified as a novel miR-18a target. Overexpression of miR-18a reduced CDC42 expression, and a luciferase assay confirmed that miR-18a directly targets the 3'UTR of CDC42. miR-18a mimics had a similar effect on proliferation as a small molecule inhibitor of CDC42. Inhibition of CDC42 expression is likely to be a key mechanism by which miR-18a impairs cancer cell growth, with a target protector experiment revealing miR-18a influences proliferation via direct inhibition of CDC42. Inhibition of CCND1 by miR-18a may also assist in this growth-suppression effect. The homeostatic function of miR-18a within the miR-17-92 cluster in colorectal cancer cells may be achieved through suppression of CDC42 and the PI3K pathway.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112288. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by increased proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are key regulators of cellular proliferation. Here we show that in pulmonary vessels and PASMCs of human and experimental PH lungs, FoxO1 expression is downregulated and FoxO1 is inactivated via phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion. These findings could be reproduced using ex vivo exposure of PASMCs to growth factors and inflammatory cytokines. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of FoxO1 in smooth muscle cells reproduced PH features in vitro and in vivo. Either pharmacological reconstitution of FoxO1 activity using intravenous or inhaled paclitaxel, or reconstitution of the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 by gene therapy, restored the physiologically quiescent PASMC phenotype in vitro, linked to changes in cell cycle control and bone morphogenic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) signaling, and reversed vascular remodeling and right-heart hypertrophy in vivo. Thus, PASMC FoxO1 is a critical integrator of multiple signaling pathways driving PH, and reconstitution of FoxO1 activity offers a potential therapeutic option for PH.Nature Medicine 10/2014; · 28.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Even though pulmonary diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, exceedingly few life-prolonging therapies have been developed for these maladies. Relief may finally come from nanomedicine and targeted drug delivery. Areas covered: Here, we focus on four conditions for which the pulmonary endothelium plays a pivotal role: acute respiratory distress syndrome, primary graft dysfunction occurring immediately after lung transplantation, pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary embolism. For each of these diseases, we first evaluate the targeted drug delivery approaches that have been tested in animals. Then we suggest a 'need specification' for each disease: a list of criteria (e.g., macroscale delivery method, stability, etc.) that nanomedicine agents must meet in order to warrant human clinical trials and investment from industry. Expert opinion: For the diseases profiled here, numerous nanomedicine agents have shown promise in animal models. However, to maximize the chances of creating products that reach patients, nanomedicine engineers and clinicians must work together and use each disease's need specification to guide the design of practical and effective nanomedicine agents.Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 11/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor