Inhibition of microRNA-17 improves lung and heart function in experimental pulmonary hypertension.
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRs) control various cellular processes in tissue homeostasis and disease by regulating gene expression on the posttranscriptional level. Recently, it was demonstrated that the expression of miR-21 and members of the miR-17-92 cluster was significantly altered in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH).
To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and antiremodeling potential of miR inhibitors in the pathogenesis of PH.
We first tested the effects of miR inhibitors (antagomirs), which were specifically designed to block miR-17 (A-17), miR-21 (A-21), and miR-92a (A-92a) in chronic hypoxia-induced PH in mice and A-17 in monocrotaline-induced PH in rats. Moreover, biological function of miR-17 was analyzed in cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.
In the PH mouse model, A-17 and A-21 reduced right ventricular systolic pressure, and all antagomirs decreased pulmonary arterial muscularization. However, only A-17 reduced hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and improved pulmonary artery acceleration time. In the monocrotaline-induced PH rat model, A-17 treatment significantly decreased right ventricular systolic pressure and total pulmonary vascular resistance index, increased pulmonary artery acceleration time, normalized cardiac output, and decreased pulmonary vascular remodeling. Among the tested miR-17 targets, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21) was up-regulated in lungs undergoing A-17 treatment. Likewise, in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, A-17 increased p21. Overexpression of miR-17 significantly reduced p21 expression and increased proliferation of smooth muscle cells.
Our data demonstrate that A-17 improves heart and lung function in experimental PH by interfering with lung vascular and right ventricular remodeling. The beneficial effects may be related to the up-regulation of p21. Thus, inhibition of miR-17 may represent a novel therapeutic concept to ameliorate disease state in PH.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by the vascular remodeling of the pulmonary arterioles, including formation of plexiform and concentric lesions comprised of proliferative vascular cells. Clinically, PAH leads to increased pulmonary arterial pressure and subsequent right ventricular failure. Existing therapies have improved the outcome but mortality still remains exceedingly high. There is emerging evidence that the seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor APJ and its cognate endogenous ligand apelin are important in the maintenance of pulmonary vascular homeostasis through the targeting of critical mediators, such as Krűppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Disruption of this pathway plays a major part in the pathogenesis of PAH. Given its role in the maintenance of pulmonary vascular homeostasis, the apelin-APJ pathway is a potential target for PAH therapy. This review highlights the current state in the understanding of the apelin-APJ axis related to PAH and discusses the therapeutic potential of this signaling pathway as a novel paradigm of PAH therapy.Molecules and Cells 03/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNA cluster miR-17-92 has been implicated in cardiovascular development and function, yet its precise mechanisms of action in these contexts are uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-17-92 in morphogenesis and function of cardiac and smooth muscle tissues. To do so, a mouse model of conditional overexpression of miR-17-92 in cardiac and smooth muscle tissues was generated. Extensive cardiac functional studies identified a dose-dependent induction of dilated, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmia inducibility in transgenic animals, which correlated with premature mortality (98.3±42.5 d, P<0.0001). Expression analyses revealed the abundance of Pten transcript, a known miR-17-92 target, to be inversely correlated with miR-17-92 expression levels and heart size. In addition, we demonstrated through 3'-UTR luciferase assays and expression analyses that Connexin43 (Cx43) is a novel direct target of miR-19a/b and its expression is suppressed in transgenic hearts. Taken together, these data demonstrate that dysregulated expression of miR-17-92 during cardiovascular morphogenesis results in a lethal cardiomyopathy, possibly in part through direct repression of Pten and Cx43. This study highlights the importance of miR-17-92 in both normal and pathological functions of the heart, and provides a model that may serve as a useful platform to test novel antiarrhythmic therapeutics.-Danielson, L. S., Park, D. S., Rotllan, N., Chamorro-Jorganes, A., Guijarro, M. V., Fernandez-Hernando, C., Fishman, G. I., Phoon, C. K. L., Hernando, E. Cardiovascular dysregulation of miR-17-92 causes a lethal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenesis.The FASEB Journal 12/2012; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension is an "umbrella term" used for a spectrum of entities resulting in an elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure. Clinical symptoms include dyspnea and fatigue which in the absence of adequate therapeutic intervention may lead to progressive right heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension is characterized by three major processes including vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling and microthrombotic events. In addition accumulating evidence point to a cytokine driven inflammatory process as a major contributor to the development of pulmonary hypertension.This review summarizes the latest clinical and experimental developments in inflammation associated with pulmonary hypertension with special focus on Interleukin-6, and its role in vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.Respiratory research 04/2014; 15(1):47. · 3.64 Impact Factor