Circulating CXCL11 and CXCL10 are increased in hepatitis C-associated cryoglobulinemia in the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis.
ABSTRACT No data are available about circulating levels of the CXCL11 chemokine in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) patients with or without autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). The aim of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate serum CXCL11 levels in these patients.
Serum CXCL11 (and for comparison, CXCL10) was measured in 45 patients with MC, 45 patients with MC and AT (MC + AT), 45 sex- and age-matched controls without AT (control 1), 45 sex- and age-matched patients with AT without cryoglobulinemia (control 2), and in 45 sex- and age-matched patients with hepatitis C chronic infection without MC (HCV+).
Serum CXCL11 and CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in control 2 than in control 1 (p < 0.01). MC patients had CXCL11 and CXCL10 significantly higher than control 1 (p < 0.01). MC + AT patients had CXCL11 and CXCL10 higher than control 2 (p < 0.01) and MC patients (p = 0.02). Serum CXCL11 levels were not associated with any of the clinical features of cryoglobulinemia in patients with MC and MC + AT, which was the same for CXCL10. CXCL10 and CXCL11 in HCV+ patients were significantly higher than in controls 1 and 2, but lower than in MC or MC+AT patients.
Our study first demonstrates higher serum levels of CXCL11 chemokine in patients with MC than in HCV+ patients, and in particular in the presence of AT.
Article: Biomarkers in vasculitis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Better biomarkers are needed for guiding management of patients with vasculitis. Large cohorts and technological advances had led to an increase in preclinical studies of potential biomarkers. The most interesting markers described recently include a gene expression signature in CD8+ T cells that predicts tendency to relapse or remain relapse-free in ANCA-associated vasculitis, and a pair of urinary proteins that are elevated in Kawasaki disease but not other febrile illnesses. Both of these studies used 'omics' technologies to generate and then test hypotheses. More conventional hypothesis-based studies have indicated that the following circulating proteins have potential to improve upon clinically available tests: pentraxin-3 in giant cell arteritis and Takayasu's arteritis; von Willebrand factor antigen in childhood central nervous system vasculitis; eotaxin-3 and other markers related to eosinophils or Th2 immune responses in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome); and MMP-3, TIMP-1, and CXCL13 in ANCA-associated vasculitis. New markers testable in blood and urine have the potential to assist with diagnosis, staging, assessment of current disease activity, and prognosis. However, the standards for clinical usefulness, in particular, the demonstration of either very high sensitivity or very high specificity have yet to be met for clinically relevant outcomes.Current opinion in rheumatology 11/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, various extrahepatic manifestations of autoimmune disorders may occur, including arthralgia/arthritis, sicca complex, purpura, cutaneous ulcer, and thyroid dysfunction. In addition, the prevalence of circulating autoantibodies is high among patients with HCV infection. Commonly detected autoantibodies in HCV-infected patients include rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibody, cryoglobulin, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibody, anti-liver and anti-thyroid autoantibodies. These autoantibodies may be associated with underlying autoimmune disorders or liver inflammation in HCV infection. A possible reason for antibody production is overactivation and proliferation of B lymphocytes, via the interaction with the surface protein of HCV. Because immunotherapy can cause HCV flare-up or liver damage, overdiagnosis of HCV-related autoimmune symptoms as primary autoimmune disorders should be avoided. This review describes biomarkers that are useful in clinically evaluating autoimmune manifestations and disorders associated with HCV infection.World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 20(11):2962-2970. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Chemokines contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis by directing the migration and positioning of inflammatory and immune cells within the liver.AimDescribe the liver-infiltrating effector cell populations in autoimmune hepatitis, indicate the chemokines that influence their migration, describe the role of chemokines in hepatic fibrosis and identify chemokine-directed treatment opportunities.Methods Studies cited in Pub Med from 1972 to 2014 for autoimmune hepatitis, chemokines in liver disease, pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis and chemokine therapy were selected.ResultsT helper type 17 lymphocytes expressing CXCR3 and CCR6 are attracted to the liver by the secretion of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. These cells recruit pro-inflammatory T helper type 1 lymphocytes expressing CXCR3 and CCR5 by secreting CXCL10. Resident natural killer T cells expressing CXCR6 migrate in response to the local secretion of CXCL16, and they modulate the inflammatory response. T helper type 2 lymphocytes expressing CCR4 are attracted by CCL17 and CCL22, and they dampen the expansion of pro-inflammatory cells. Regulatory T cells expressing CXCR3 are attracted by the secretion of CXCL9, and they help dampen the pro-inflammatory responses. CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL4, CXCL10 and CXCL16 promote fibrosis by activating or attracting hepatic stellate cells, and CX3CL1 may prevent fibrosis by affecting the apoptosis of monocytes.Conclusions Chemokines are requisites for mobilising, directing and positioning the effector cells in immune-mediated liver disease. They are feasible therapeutic targets in autoimmune hepatitis, and the evaluation of monoclonal antibodies that neutralise the pro-inflammatory ligands or designer peptides that block receptor activity are investigational opportunities.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 05/2014; · 4.55 Impact Factor