Transitions to regular smoking and nicotine dependence in the Adolescent National Comorbidity Survey (NCS-A).
ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate the occurrence of nicotine dependence following the achievement of previous smoking milestones (initiation, weekly, and daily smoking).
Analyses are based on data from The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent, a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10,123 adolescents (age 13-17) conducted between 2001 and 2004.
Among adolescents who had ever smoked (36.0%), 40.7% reached weekly smoking levels and 32.8% had reached daily smoking. Approximately one in five adolescents who had ever smoked (19.6%) met criteria for nicotine dependence. An earlier age of smoking initiation, a shorter time since the onset of smoking and faster transitions among smoking milestones were independently associated with the onset of daily smoking and nicotine dependence.
These findings shed new light on the course of smoking and nicotine dependence during adolescence by demonstrating a rapid transition across smoking stages for those most at risk for the development of chronic and dependent use.
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ABSTRACT: AimsTo examine the interrelationships between cigarette consumption and DSM-IV nicotine dependence (ND) criteria from smoking onset in adolescence up to seven years later, adjusting for alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) criteria.DesignA cohort drawn from grades 6-10 in an urban school system was interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and 4.5 years later (Wave 6). A parent was interviewed three times.SettingChicago, Illinois.ParticipantsRecent smokers (n=409).MeasurementsStructured household interviews ascertained number of cigarettes smoked, DSM-IV ND symptoms, drinks consumed, DSM-IV AD symptoms, and selected covariates.AnalysisReciprocal prospective associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria, controlling for time-varying alcohol consumption and dependence criteria, were examined with cross-lagged models.FindingsReciprocal associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria were both significant. Cigarette consumption had stronger associations with later ND (β=0.25, 95% CI=0.17-0.32) than dependence had with later cigarette consumption (β=0.09, 95% CI=0.01-0.16). Alcohol and cigarette consumption influenced each other; AD scores were associated with later ND scores but not the reverse. Reports of pleasant initial experiences from smoking were positively associated with cigarette consumption and ND the first year after smoking onset; later smoking onset was negatively associated with cigarette consumption the seventh year after onset; parental ND predicted cigarette consumption and ND throughout.Conclusions In adolescent smokers, higher cigarette consumption predicts later severity of DSM-IV nicotine dependence more than the reverse. Smoking and drinking also influence each other mutually over time.Addiction 05/2014; 109(9). DOI:10.1111/add.12619 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: In Western countries, smoking accounts for a large share of socioeconomic inequalities in health. As smoking initiation occurs around the age of 13, it is likely that school context and social networks at school play a role in the origin of such inequalities. So far, there has been little generic explanation of how social ties at school contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. The SILNE (Smoking Inequalities – Learning from Natural Experiments) survey was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of peer effect, homophilous social ties, and school context may explain how smoking inequalities are magnified at school – a theory known as network-induced inequality. In this paper, the survey theory and design are presented. Findings: The social network survey was carried out in 2013 in six medium-sized European cities with average incomes similar to the national average: Namur (Belgium), Tampere (Finland), Hannover (Germany), Latina (Italy), Amersfoort (The Netherlands), and Coimbra (Portugal). In each city, 6 to 8 schools were selected in a stratified sampling procedure. In each school, two grades in secondary education, corresponding to 14-16-year-olds, were selected. All adolescents in these two grades were invited to participate in the survey. Social ties were reported using the roster approach, in which each adolescent had to nominate up to 5 friends from a directory. The survey collected information from 11,015 adolescents in 50 schools, out of a total of 13,870 registered adolescents, yielding a participation rate of 79%. The SILNE survey yielded 57,094 social ties, 86.7% of which referred to friends who also participated in the survey. Discussion: The SILNE survey was designed to measure the association between adolescents' social ties at school, their socioeconomic background, and their smoking behaviour. Two difficulties were encountered, however: legal privacy constraints made it impossible to apply the same parental consent procedure in all countries, leading to somewhat lower participation rates in two cities: Hannover and Latina. It was also difficult to match the 6 cities in terms of both age and type of education. The SILNE survey provided a comparable database for the study of smoking inequalities across European cities from a social network perspective.BMC Research Notes 03/2015; 8(91). DOI:10.1186/s13104-015-1041-z
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ABSTRACT: Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 09/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.07.003 · 10.28 Impact Factor