Impact of genetic features on treatment decisions in AML.
ABSTRACT In recent years, research in molecular genetics has been instrumental in deciphering the molecular pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With the advent of the novel genomics technologies such as next-generation sequencing, it is expected that virtually all genetic lesions in AML will soon be identified. Gene mutations or deregulated expression of genes or sets of genes now allow us to explore the enormous diversity among cytogenetically defined subsets of AML, in particular the large subset of cytogenetically normal AML. Nonetheless, there are several challenges, such as discriminating driver from passenger mutations, evaluating the prognostic and predictive value of a specific mutation in the concert of the various concurrent mutations, or translating findings from molecular disease pathogenesis into novel therapies. Progress is unlikely to be fast in developing molecular targeted therapies. Contrary to the initial assumption, the development of molecular targeted therapies is slow and the various reports of promising new compounds will need to be put into perspective because many of these drugs did not show the expected effects.
Article: U2AF1 Mutations in Chinese Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Somatic mutations of U2AF1 gene have recently been identified in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we analyzed the frequency and clinical impact of U2AF1 mutations in a cohort of 452 Chinese patients with myeloid neoplasms. Mutations in U2AF1 were found in 2.5% (7/275) of AML and 6.3% (6/96) of MDS patients, but in none of 81 CML. All mutations were heterozygous missense mutations affecting codon S34 or Q157. There was no significant association of U2AF1 mutation with blood parameters, FAB subtypes, karyotypes and other gene mutations in AML. The overall survival (OS) of AML patients with U2AF1 mutation (median 3 months) was shorter than those without mutation (median 7 months) (P = 0.035). No difference in the OS was observed between MDS patients with and without U2AF1 mutations. Our data show that U2AF1 mutation is a recurrent event at a low frequency in AML and MDS.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45760. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: The Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1) Inhibitor NMS-P937 Is Effective in a New Model of Disseminated Primary CD56(+) Acute Monoblastic Leukaemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD56 is expressed in 15-20% of acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and is associated with extramedullary diffusion, multidrug resistance and poor prognosis. We describe the establishment and characterisation of a novel disseminated model of AML (AML-NS8), generated by injection into mice of leukaemic blasts freshly isolated from a patient with an aggressive CD56(+) monoblastic AML (M5a). The model reproduced typical manifestations of this leukaemia, including presence of extramedullary masses and central nervous system involvement, and the original phenotype, karyotype and genotype of leukaemic cells were retained in vivo. Recently Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1) has emerged as a new candidate drug target in AML. We therefore tested our PLK1 inhibitor NMS-P937 in this model either in the engraftment or in the established disease settings. Both schedules showed good efficacy compared to standard therapies, with a significant increase in median survival time (MST) expecially in the established disease setting (MST = 28, 36, 62 days for vehicle, cytarabine and NMS-P937, respectively). Importantly, we could also demonstrate that NMS-P937 induced specific biomarker modulation in extramedullary tissues. This new in vivo model of CD56(+) AML that recapitulates the human tumour lends support for the therapeutic use of PLK1 inhibitors in AML.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58424. · 4.09 Impact Factor