ABSTRACT Gilbert syndrome is a common autosomal dominant hereditary condition with incomplete penetrance and characterized by intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the absence of hepatocellular disease or hemolysis. In patients with Gilbert syndrome, uridine diphosphate-glucuronyl transferase activity is reduced to 30% of the normal, resulting in indirect hyperbilirubinemia. In its typical form, hyperbilirubinemia is first noticed as intermittent mild jaundice in adolescence. However, Gilbert syndrome in combination with other prevailing conditions such as breast feeding, G-6-PD deficiency, thalassemia, spherocytosis, or cystic fibrosis may potentiate severe hyperbilirubinemia and/or cholelithiasis. It may also reduce plasma oxidation, and it may also affect drug metabolism. Although in general the diagnosis of the syndrome is one of exclusion, molecular genetic tests can now be performed when there is a diagnostic problem. The most common genotype of Gilbert syndrome is the homozygous polymorphism A(TA)7TAA in the promoter of the gene for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), which is a TA insertion into the promoter designated UGT1A1*28. No specific management is necessary as Gilbert syndrome is a benign condition. CONCLUSION: Gilbert genotype should be kept in the clinician's mind, at least as a contributor factor, in cases with unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia.
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ABSTRACT: The recent progresses in molecular biology and pharmacology approaches allowed the characterization of a series of nuclear receptors (NRs) as efficient regulators of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes activity. These regulatory processes ensure an optimized UGT expression in response to specific endo- and/or exogenous stimuli. Many of these NRs are activated by endobiotics that also are substrates for UGTs. Thus, by activating their receptors, these endogenous substances control their own conjugation, leading to the concept that glucuronidation is an important part of feed-forward/feedback mechanisms by which bioactive molecules control their own concentrations. On the other hand, numerous studies have established the pharmacological relevance of NR-UGT regulatory pathways in the response to therapeutic ligands. The present review article aims at providing a comprehensive view of the physiological and pharmacological importance of the NR regulation of the expression and activity of endobiotics-conjugating UGT enzymes. Selected examples will illustrate how the organism profits from the feed-forward/feedback mechanisms involving NR-UGT pathways, but also how such regulatory processes are involved in the initiation and/or progression of several pathological situations. Finally, we will discuss how the present pharmacopeia involves NR-dependent regulation of endobiotics glucuronidation, and whether the unexploited NR-UGT axes could serve as pharmacological targets for novel therapeutics to restore endobiotics homeostasis.Drug Metabolism Reviews 02/2013; 45(1):34-47. DOI:10.3109/03602532.2012.751992 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Gilbert syndrome is characterized by mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The high levels of bilirubin could be related to the co-inheritance of Gilbert syndrome determined either by mutations of the coding region or by variation in the (TA)n motifs of the promoter region of the bilirubin UGT1A1 gene. The co-inheritance of Gilbert syndrome has been reported to elevate bilirubin levels in beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease patients. Aim In this study, we have tried to investigate whether the variability in serum bilirubin levels found in transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia, beta thalassemia intermedia, and heterozygous beta thalassemia individuals could be related to the coexistence of Gilbert syndrome. Methods: The promoter region (TA)n motifs of the bilirubin UGT1A1 gene were analyzed in 104 beta thalassemia individuals. The control group consisted of 50 healthy individuals. Results: The analysis of the UGT1A1 promoter showed three (TA) motifs: (TA)5, (TA)6, and (TA)7. The frequency of genotype (TA)7/(TA)7 did not differ significantly between the groups studied. A significant difference was observed in mean serum bilirubin levels between individuals showing (TA)7/(TA)7 and (TA)6/(TA)6 genotypes and also between (TA)7/(TA)7 and (TA)6/(TA)7 genotypes among all groups studied. According to the beta genotype, no differences were observed between mean serum bilirubin levels in the three groups (β(+)/β(+), β(0)/β(+), and β(0)/β(0)). Conclusion: These results indicate that the (TA)7/(TA)7 configuration is one of the factors responsible for hyperbilirubinemia and, therefore, seems to interfere with the clinical expression of homozygous beta thalassemia. This emphasizes the role played by co-inherited modifying genes on clinical heterogeneity of monogenic disorders.Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2013; 19(7). DOI:10.1179/1607845413Y.0000000142 · 1.25 Impact Factor
Chapter: Gallstone Disease in Children[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent reports indicate that the incidence of gallstone disease in children is on the rise. While historically, most pediatric gallstones were of the pigmented variety, the mounting prevalence of childhood obesity is correlating with an increasing burden of cholesterol stones. Biliary pain is the most common manifestation of gallstone disease, but serious and potentially life-threatening conditions such as cholecystitis, cholangitis, and gallstone pancreatitis may occur. After reviewing the pathophysiology and epidemiology of pediatric gallstone disease, this chapter discusses the diagnosis and medical management of gallstone-related issues including cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, gallstone pancreatitis, cholangitis, Mirizzi’s syndrome, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.Diseases of the Liver in Children, 01/2014: pages 389-401; , ISBN: 978-1-4614-9004-3