α-Mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, promotes cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer and decreases xenograft tumor growth.
ABSTRACT There is a need to characterize promising dietary agents for chemoprevention and therapy of prostate cancer (PCa). We examined the anticancer effect of α-mangostin, derived from the mangosteen fruit, in human PCa cells and its role in targeting cell cycle-related proteins involved in prostate carcinogenesis. Using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, we found that α-mangostin significantly decreases PCa cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis using flow cytometry identified cell cycle arrest along with apoptosis. To establish a more precise mechanism of action, we performed a cell free biochemical kinase assay against multiple cyclins/cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) involved in cell cycle progression; the most significant inhibition in the cell free-based assays was CDK4, a critical component of the G1 phase. Through molecular modeling, we evaluated α-mangostin against the adenosine triphosphate-binding pocket of CDK4 and propose three possible orientations that may result in CDK4 inhibition. We then performed an in vivo animal study to evaluate the ability of α-mangostin to suppress tumor growth. Athymic nude mice were implanted with 22Rv1 cells and treated with vehicle or α-mangostin (100 mg/kg) by oral gavage. At the conclusion of the study, mice in the control cohort had a tumor volume of 1190 mm(3), while the treatment group had a tumor volume of 410 mm(3) (P < 0.01). The ability of α-mangostin to inhibit PCa in vitro and in vivo suggests α-mangostin may be a novel agent for the management of PCa.
Article: Loss of normal G1 checkpoint control is an early step in carcinogenesis, independent of p53 status.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have described a diminished radiation-induced G1 arrest in some wild-type (wt) p53 human tumor cell lines compared to normal human fibroblasts. However, the significance of this finding was unclear, particularly because tumor cell lines may have accumulated additional genetic changes after long periods in culture. Because malignant transformation of individual cells is thought to be an early step in carcinogenesis, we have used a model system of normal and transformed mouse fibroblast 10T1/2 cell clones to examine whether loss of G1 checkpoint control may be an early event in tumor development and to study the relationships between G1 arrest, radiosensitivity, and genetic alterations. Twelve transformed clones were established from type III foci induced by irradiation of normal 10T1/2 cells and were compared with six clones derived from wt 10T1/2 cells. Three of the transformed clones expressed mutant p53; two of these had the same point mutation at codon 132 (exon 5), and one had a point mutation at codon 135. The remaining transformed and normal clones had wt p53 status. The radiosensitivity of transformed clones, as measured by a clonogenic assay, was similar to that of normal clones; the three clones with mutant p53 did not differ from the others. There was no relationship between G1 arrest and radiosensitivity. Normal 10T1/2 cell clones showed a transient G1 arrest lasting approximately 9 h after 6 Gy of irradiation. This G1 arrest was either absent or markedly reduced in all of the transformed clones, regardless of p53 status. These results suggest that diminished G1 checkpoint control is an early event in the process of carcinogenesis that is associated with the malignant transformation of individual cells and is independent of p53 status.Cancer Research 04/1999; 59(5):1008-14. · 7.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most practical approach to reduce the morbidity and mortality of cancer is to delay the process of carcinogenesis through the use of chemopreventive agents. This necessitates that safer compounds, especially those derived from natural sources must be critically examined for chemoprevention. A spice common to India and the surrounding regions, is turmeric, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Pre-clinical studies in a variety of cancer cell lines including breast, cervical, colon, gastric, hepatic, leukemia, oral epithelial, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate have consistently shown that curcumin possesses anti-cancer activity in vitro and in pre-clinical animal models. The robust activity of curcumin in colorectal cancer has led to five phase I clinical trials being completed showing the safety and tolerability of curcumin in colorectal cancer patients. To date clinical trials have not identified a maximum tolerated dose of curcumin in humans with clinical trials using doses up to 8000mg per day. The success of these trials has led to the development of phase II trials that are currently enrolling patients. Overwhelming in vitro evidence and completed clinical trials suggests that curcumin may prove to be useful for the chemoprevention of colon cancer in humans. This review will focus on describing the pre-clinical and clinical evidence of curcumin as a chemopreventive compound in colorectal cancer.Cancer Letters 11/2007; 255(2):170-81. · 4.24 Impact Factor
Article: Apoptotic effects on B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells of heterocyclic compounds isolated from Guttiferaes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A series of 10 heterocyclic compounds purified from Allanblackia were tested on two B cell lines, ESKOL and EHEB, and on cells from B-CLL patients. Several molecules inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines and promoted apoptosis of B-CLL cells through different mechanisms, some of them elicited a dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, other triggered caspase-3 activation and cleavage of the inducible nitric oxide synthase. Blood mononuclear cells and B-lymphocytes from healthy donors appeared less sensitive than B-CLL cells. These results indicate that these molecules may be of interest in the development of new therapies for B-CLL.Leukemia Research 12/2008; 32(12):1914-26. · 2.92 Impact Factor