Low serum lycopene and β-carotene increase risk of acute myocardial infarction in men.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that high intake or concentrations of serum carotenoids may protect against acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The role of carotenoids on the risk of AMI remains inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine if serum concentrations of major carotenoids are related to AMI in men. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1031 Finnish men aged 46-65 years in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) cohort. Serum concentrations of carotenoids, retinol and α-tocopherol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The association between the serum concentrations of lycopene α-carotene and β-carotene and the risk of AMI was studied by using the Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: A total of 194 incident AMI cases occurred during an average of 11.5 follow-up years. After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of AMI for men in the lowest tertile of serum concentrations compared with men in the highest tertile was 1.55 (95% CI 1.05- 2.30; P = 0.028) for lycopene and 1.60 (95% CI 1.09-2.35; P = 0.017) for β-carotene. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study shows that low serum lycopene and β-carotene concentrations may increase the risk of AMI in men.
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ABSTRACT: Lycopene (LYC) is the major tomato carotenoid and is the focus of substantial research. Phytoene (PE), a minor tomato carotenoid, is found in human blood and tissues in similar concentrations to LYC. To determine which metabolic differences underlie this phenomenon, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, n = 56) were fed control or tomato powder (TP)-containing diets (to establish steady-state serum and tissue carotenoid concentrations similar to tomato-fed humans) for 26 d. The TP-fed gerbils were then provided either a single, oral, cottonseed oil (CO) vehicle dose and tissues were collected at 6 h or they were provided unlabeled PE or LYC in CO and tissues were evaluated at 6, 12, or 24 h. In vehicle-dosed, TP-fed gerbils, LYC was the major carotenoid (≥55% carotenoids) in liver, spleen, testes, and the prostate-seminal vesicle complex, whereas PE was the major serum and adipose carotenoid (≥37% total carotenoid) and phytofluene was the major carotenoid (≥38%) in adrenals and lungs. PE dosing increased hepatic, splenic, and serum PE concentrations compared with vehicle dosing (P < 0.05) from 6 to 24 h, whereas LYC dosing increased only serum LYC at 6 and 12 h (P < 0.05) compared with vehicle dosing. This suggested PE was more bioavailable and cleared more slowly than LYC. To precisely track absorptive and distributive differences, (14)C-PE or (14)C-LYC (n = 2/group) was provided to TP-fed gerbils. Bioavailability assessed by carcass (14)C-content was 23% for PE and 8% for LYC. Nearly every extra-hepatic tissue accumulated greater dose radioactivity after (14)C-PE than (14)C-LYC dosing. Thus, LYC and PE, which structurally differ only by saturation, pharmacokinetically differ in bioavailability, tissue deposition, and clearance.Journal of Nutrition 10/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor