[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients with anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. We investigated the association of essential dietary PUFA intake, reflected by plasma fatty acid composition, with inflammation and mortality in dialysis patients.
We recruited 222 Swedish dialysis subjects (39% women) with median age of 57 years and average 12 months of dialysis vintage. Plasma phospholipid PUFA were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Overall mortality was assessed after 18.4 (10th-90th percentiles: 2.3-60) months of follow-up.
Linoleic acid (LA), Mead acid (MA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3; the sum of eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) represented 19.7, 0.26, 0.26 and 7.64% of all fatty acids in plasma, respectively. This may reflect an adequate n-3 PUFA intake. LA was negatively (β = - 0.21, P = 0.004) but MA positively (β = 0.25, P < 0.001) associated with interleukin (IL)-6 in multivariate analyses. Neither ALA nor LC n-3 were independently associated with IL-6. During follow-up, 61 deaths and 115 kidney transplants occurred. Fully adjusted competing risk models showed that every percent increase in the proportion of plasma LA was associated with 12% reduction in mortality risk before transplantation (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.79-0.99). MA was directly associated with mortality. Neither ALA nor LC n-3 predicted outcome.
The proportion of plasma phospholipid LA is inversely associated with IL-6 and all-cause mortality in Swedish dialysis patients. We raise the hypothesis that dialysis patients could benefit from increased intake of vegetable oils, the primary source of LA in the Western-type diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) is found in corn-based foods and is a possible risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in LM/Bc mice is not understood; however, evidence suggests disrupted folate transport is involved.
Female LM/Bc mice were fed folate-sufficient (control) or folate-deficient diet beginning 5 wk before mating, treated with 0 (vehicle), 2.5 or 10 mg/kg FB1 by intraperitoneal injection on embryonic days 7 (E7) and E8, and their fetuses examined on E16. Dose-dependent NTD induction was found in groups fed the control diet: 3 of 13 low-dose and 10 of 11 high-dose litters were affected. Among groups fed folate-deficient diet, NTDs were found only in 4 of 11 high-dose litters. In another trial, consumption of folate-deficient diet also resulted in fewer NTDs at a dose of 10 mg/kg FB1 and reduced maternal red blood cell folate levels by 80%. In utero death did not fully account for the differences in NTD rates.
Folate deficiency does not exacerbate NTD induction by FB1 in LM/Bc mice. Interactions between folate, other nutritional factors, and FB1 in this mouse model for NTDs are complex and require further investigation.
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