Molecular programming of B cell memory.
ABSTRACT The development of high-affinity B cell memory is regulated through three separable phases, each involving antigen recognition by specific B cells and cognate T helper cells. Initially, antigen-primed B cells require cognate T cell help to gain entry into the germinal centre pathway to memory. Once in the germinal centre, B cells with variant B cell receptors must access antigens and present them to germinal centre T helper cells to enter long-lived memory B cell compartments. Following antigen recall, memory B cells require T cell help to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells. A recent surge of information - resulting from dynamic B cell imaging in vivo and the elucidation of T follicular helper cell programmes - has reshaped the conceptual landscape surrounding the generation of memory B cells. In this Review, we integrate this new information about each phase of antigen-specific B cell development to describe the newly unravelled molecular dynamics of memory B cell programming.
- SourceAvailable from: Cristina Gil Cruz[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vaccines against acute infections execute their protective effects almost exclusively via the induction of antibodies. Development of protective vaccines against persisting pathogens lags behind probably because standard immunogens and application regimen do not sufficiently stimulate those circuits in B cell activation that mediate protection. In general, B cell responses against pathogen derived-antigens are generated through complex cellular interactions requiring the coordination of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. In this review, we summarize recent findings from prototypic infection models to exemplify how generation of protective antibodies against persisting pathogens is imprinted by particular pathogen-derived factors and how distinct CD4(+) T cell populations determine the quality of these antibodies. Clearly, it is the high plasticity of these processes that is instrumental to drive tailored B cell responses that protect the host. In sum, application of novel knowledge on B cell plasticity and complexity can guide the development of rationally designed vaccines that elicit protective antibodies against persisting pathogens.Immunology Letters 07/2014; 162(1). DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2014.07.003 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The transcriptional network regulating antibody-secreting cell (ASC) differentiation has been extensively studied, but our current understanding is limited. The mechanisms of action of known "master" regulators are still unclear, while the participation of new factors is being revealed. Here, we identify Zbtb20, a Bcl6 homologue, as a novel regulator of late B cell development. Within the B cell lineage, Zbtb20 is specifically expressed in B1 and germinal center B cells and peaks in long-lived bone marrow (BM) ASCs. Unlike Bcl6, an inhibitor of ASC differentiation, ectopic Zbtb20 expression in primary B cells facilitates terminal B cell differentiation to ASCs. In plasma cell lines, Zbtb20 induces cell survival and blocks cell cycle progression. Immunized Zbtb20-deficient mice exhibit curtailed humoral responses and accelerated loss of antigen-specific plasma cells, specifically from the BM pool. Strikingly, Zbtb20 induction does not require Blimp1 but depends directly on Irf4, acting at a newly identified Zbtb20 promoter in ASCs. These results identify Zbtb20 as an important player in late B cell differentiation and provide new insights into this complex process.Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2014; DOI:10.1084/jem.20131831 · 13.91 Impact Factor
Article: Why Do We Need IgM Memory B Cells?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immunological memory is our reservoir of ready-to use antibodies and memory B cells. Because of immunological memory a secondary infection will be very light or not occur at all. Antibodies and cells, generated in the germinal center in response to the first encounter with antigen, are highly specific, remain in the organism virtually forever and are mostly of IgG isotype. Long lived plasma cells homing to the bone marrow ensure the constant production of protective antibodies, whereas switched memory B cells proliferate and differentiate in response to secondary challenge. IgM memory B cells represent our first-line defense against infections. They are generated by a T-cell independent mechanism probably triggered by Toll-like receptor-9. They produce natural antibodies with anti-bacterial specificity and the spleen is indispensable for their maintenance. We will review the characteristics and functions of IgM memory B cells that explain their importance in the immediate protection from pathogens. IgM memory B cells, similar to mouse B-1a B cells, may be a remnant of a primitive immune system that developed in the spleen of cartilaginous fish and persisted throughout evolution notwithstanding the sophisticated tools of the adaptive immune system.Immunology letters 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2013.04.007 · 2.37 Impact Factor