The role of ubiquitylation in immune defence and pathogen evasion.
ABSTRACT Ubiquitylation is a widely used post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological processes, including immune responses. The role of ubiquitin in immune regulation was originally uncovered through studies of antigen presentation and the nuclear factor-κB family of transcription factors, which orchestrate host defence against microorganisms. Recent studies have revealed crucial roles of ubiquitylation in many aspects of the immune system, including innate and adaptive immunity and antimicrobial autophagy. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that microbial pathogens exploit the ubiquitin pathway to evade the host immune system. Here, we review recent advances on the role of ubiquitylation in host defence and pathogen evasion.
- SourceAvailable from: Ying-Cing Lin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NLRP3 is the most crucial member of the NLR family, as it detects the existence of pathogen invasion and self-derived molecules associated with cellular damage. Several studies have reported that excessive NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activation is a key factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies have reported that Syk is involved in pathogen-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation; however, the detailed mechanism linking Syk to NLRP3 inflammasome remains unclear. In this study, we showed that Syk mediates NLRP3 stimuli-induced processing of procaspase-1 and the consequent activation of caspase-1. Moreover, the kinase activity of Syk is required to potentiate caspase-1 activation in a reconstituted NLRP3 inflammasome system in HEK293T cells. The adaptor protein ASC bridges NLRP3 with the effector protein caspase-1. Herein, we find that Syk can associate directly with ASC and NLRP3 by its kinase domain but interact indirectly with procaspase-1. Syk can phosphorylate ASC at Y146 and Y187 residues, and the phosphorylation of both residues is critical to enhance ASC oligomerization and the recruitment of procaspase-1. Together, our results reveal a new molecular pathway through which Syk promotes NLRP3 inflammasome formation, resulting from the phosphorylation of ASC. Thus, the control of Syk activity might be effective to modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and treat NLRP3-related immune diseases. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.Journal of leukocyte biology. 01/2015;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The activity of proteins delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm injection apparatus allows Legionella pneumophila to establish a niche called the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), which is permissive for intracellular bacterial propagation. Among these proteins, substrate of Icm/Dot transporter (SidC) anchors to the cytoplasmic surface of the LCV and is important for the recruitment of host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins to this organelle. However, the biochemical function underlying this activity is unknown. Here, we determined the structure of the N-terminal domain of SidC, which has no structural homology to any protein. Sequence homology analysis revealed a potential canonical catalytic triad formed by Cys46, His444, and Asp446 on the surface of SidC. Unexpectedly, we found that SidC is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that uses the C-H-D triad to catalyze the formation of high-molecular-weight polyubiquitin chains through multiple ubiquitin lysine residues. A C46A mutation completely abolished the E3 ligase activity and the ability of the protein to recruit host ER proteins as well as polyubiquitin conjugates to the LCV. Thus, SidC represents a unique E3 ubiquitin ligase family important for phagosomal membrane remodeling by L. pneumophila.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play crucial roles in the innate immune system by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns derived from various microbes. TLRs signal through the recruitment of specific adaptor molecules, leading to activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and IRFs, which dictate the outcome of innate immune responses. During the past decade, the precise mechanisms underlying TLR signaling have been clarified by various approaches involving genetic, biochemical, structural, cell biological, and bioinformatics studies. TLR signaling appears to be divergent and to play important roles in many aspects of the innate immune responses to given pathogens. In this review, we describe recent progress in our understanding of TLR signaling regulation and its contributions to host defense.Frontiers in Immunology 09/2014; 5:461.