The role of ubiquitylation in immune defence and pathogen evasion.
ABSTRACT Ubiquitylation is a widely used post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological processes, including immune responses. The role of ubiquitin in immune regulation was originally uncovered through studies of antigen presentation and the nuclear factor-κB family of transcription factors, which orchestrate host defence against microorganisms. Recent studies have revealed crucial roles of ubiquitylation in many aspects of the immune system, including innate and adaptive immunity and antimicrobial autophagy. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that microbial pathogens exploit the ubiquitin pathway to evade the host immune system. Here, we review recent advances on the role of ubiquitylation in host defence and pathogen evasion.
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ABSTRACT: Following the discovery of protein modification by the small, highly conserved ubiquitin polypeptide, a number of distinct ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) have been found to function as protein modifiers as well. These Ubls, which include SUMO, ISG15, Nedd8, and Atg8, function as critical regulators of many cellular processes, including transcription, DNA repair, signal transduction, autophagy, and cell-cycle control. A growing body of data also implicates the dysregulation of Ubl-substrate modification and mutations in the Ubl-conjugation machinery in the etiology and progression of a number of human diseases. The primary aim of this review is to summarize the latest developments in our understanding of the different Ubl-protein modification systems, including the shared and unique features of these related pathways.Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 02/2006; 22:159-80. · 17.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytokine signaling is thought to require assembly of multicomponent signaling complexes at cytoplasmic segments of membrane-embedded receptors, in which receptor-proximal protein kinases are activated. Indeed, CD40, a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member, forms a complex containing adaptor molecules TRAF2 and TRAF3, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins 1 and 2 (c-IAP1/2), IkappaB kinase regulatory subunit IKKgamma (also called NEMO), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase MEKK1 upon ligation. TRAF2, Ubc13, and IKKgamma were required for complex assembly and activation of MEKK1 and MAPK cascades. However, these kinases were not activated unless the multicomponent signaling complex translocated from CD40 to the cytosol upon c-IAP1/2-induced degradation of TRAF3. This two-stage signaling mechanism may apply to other innate immune receptors, accounting for spatial and temporal separation of MAPK and IKK signaling.Science 08/2008; 321(5889):663-8. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The degradation of undesirable cellular components or organelles, including invading microbes, by autophagy is crucial for cell survival. Here, Shigella, an invasive bacteria, was found to be able to escape autophagy by secreting IcsB by means of the type III secretion system. Mutant bacteria lacking IcsB were trapped by autophagy during multiplication within the host cells. IcsB did not directly inhibit autophagy. Rather, Shigella VirG, a protein required for intracellular actin-based motility, induced autophagy by binding to the autophagy protein, Atg5. In nonmutant Shigella, this binding is competitively inhibited by IcsB binding to VirG.Science 03/2005; 307(5710):727-31. · 31.20 Impact Factor