The role of ubiquitylation in immune defence and pathogen evasion.
ABSTRACT Ubiquitylation is a widely used post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological processes, including immune responses. The role of ubiquitin in immune regulation was originally uncovered through studies of antigen presentation and the nuclear factor-κB family of transcription factors, which orchestrate host defence against microorganisms. Recent studies have revealed crucial roles of ubiquitylation in many aspects of the immune system, including innate and adaptive immunity and antimicrobial autophagy. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that microbial pathogens exploit the ubiquitin pathway to evade the host immune system. Here, we review recent advances on the role of ubiquitylation in host defence and pathogen evasion.
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ABSTRACT: Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, ERIS, or MPYS) is essential for host immune responses triggered by microbial DNAs. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying STING-mediated signaling are not fully understood. We report here that, upon cytoplasmic DNA stimulation, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein AMFR was recruited to and interacted with STING in an insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1)-dependent manner. AMFR and INSIG1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, then catalyzed the K27-linked polyubiquitination of STING. This modification served as an anchoring platform for recruiting TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and facilitating its translocation to the perinuclear microsomes. Depletion of AMFR or INSIG1 impaired STING-mediated antiviral gene induction. Consistently, myeloid-cell-specific Insig1(-/-) mice were more susceptible to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection than wild-type mice. This study uncovers an essential role of the ER proteins AMFR and INSIG1 in innate immunity, revealing an important missing link in the STING signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Immunity 12/2014; 41(6):919-933. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.11.011 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NLRP3 is the most crucial member of the NLR family, as it detects the existence of pathogen invasion and self-derived molecules associated with cellular damage. Several studies have reported that excessive NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activation is a key factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies have reported that Syk is involved in pathogen-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation; however, the detailed mechanism linking Syk to NLRP3 inflammasome remains unclear. In this study, we showed that Syk mediates NLRP3 stimuli-induced processing of procaspase-1 and the consequent activation of caspase-1. Moreover, the kinase activity of Syk is required to potentiate caspase-1 activation in a reconstituted NLRP3 inflammasome system in HEK293T cells. The adaptor protein ASC bridges NLRP3 with the effector protein caspase-1. Herein, we find that Syk can associate directly with ASC and NLRP3 by its kinase domain but interact indirectly with procaspase-1. Syk can phosphorylate ASC at Y146 and Y187 residues, and the phosphorylation of both residues is critical to enhance ASC oligomerization and the recruitment of procaspase-1. Together, our results reveal a new molecular pathway through which Syk promotes NLRP3 inflammasome formation, resulting from the phosphorylation of ASC. Thus, the control of Syk activity might be effective to modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and treat NLRP3-related immune diseases. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 01/2015; 97(5). DOI:10.1189/jlb.3HI0814-371RR · 4.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerging human pathogen that was first isolated in 2012. MERS-CoV replication depends in part on a virus-encoded papain-like protease (PLpro) that cleaves the viral replicase polyproteins at three sites releasing non-structural protein (nsp) 1, nsp2 and nsp3. In addition to this replicative function, MERS-CoV PLpro was recently shown to possess deubiquitinating (DUB) and deISGylating activities, as previously reported for other coronaviral PLpro domains including that of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). These activities have been suggested to suppress host antiviral responses during infection. To understand the molecular basis for ubiquitin (Ub) recognition and deconjugation by MERS-CoV PLpro, we determined its crystal structure in complex with Ub. Guided by this structure, mutations were introduced into PLpro to specifically disrupt Ub binding without affecting viral polyprotein cleavage, as determined using an in trans nsp3|4 cleavage assay. Having developed a strategy to selectively disable PLpro DUB activity, we were able to specifically examine the effects of this activity on the innate immune response. Whereas the wild-type PLpro domain was found to suppress IFN-β promoter activation, PLpro variants specifically lacking DUB activity were no longer able to do so. These findings directly implicate the DUB function of PLpro, and not its proteolytic activity per se, in the inhibition of IFN-β promoter activity. The ability to decouple the DUB activity of PLpro from its role in viral polyprotein processing now provides an approach to further dissect the role(s) of PLpro as a viral DUB during MERS-CoV infection.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.609644 · 4.60 Impact Factor