The effect of training volume on lower-body strength.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine the chronic effects on lower-body strength in resistance trained men of performing varying training volumes over 6 weeks. A pretest and posttest design was used to investigate the effects on 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat strength. Also, 1RM testing was performed at 3 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to an intensity-matched (80% of 1RM) low (1-SET), moderate (4-SET), or high (8-SET) volume condition. In addition to significant strength increases in all groups at the end of the 6-week period, increases were observed at 3 weeks under the 4- and 8-SET conditions, which were greater than the improvement under the 1-SET condition. At 6 weeks, the magnitude of improvement was significantly greater for the 8-SET, as compared with that of the 1-SET group. The magnitude of improvement elicited in the 4-SET group was not different from that of the 1-SET or 8-SET groups. The results suggest that "high" volumes (i.e., >4 sets) are associated with enhanced strength development but that "moderate" volumes offer no advantage. Practitioners should be aware that strength development may be dependent on appropriate volume doses and training duration.
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ABSTRACT: Although there are well documented protective health benefits conferred by regular physical activity, most individuals of all ages are not physically active at a level for sufficient maintenance of health. Consequently, a major public health goal is to improve the collective health and fitness levels of all individuals. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and other international organisations have established guidelines for comprehensive exercise programmes composed of aerobic, flexibility and resistance-exercise training. Resistance training is the most effective method available for maintaining and increasing lean body mass and improving muscular strength and endurance. Furthermore, there is an increasing amount of evidence suggesting that resistance training may significantly improve many health factors associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. These health benefits can be safely obtained by most segments of the population when prescribed appropriate resistance-exercise programmes. Resistance-training programmes should be tailored to meet the needs and goals of the individual and should incorporate a variety of exercises performed at a sufficient intensity to enhance the development and maintenance of muscular strength and endurance, and lean body mass. A minimum of 1 set of 8 to 10 exercises (multi-joint and single joint) that involve the major muscle groups should be performed 2 to 3 times a week for healthy participants of all ages. More technical and advanced training including periodised multiple set regimens and/or advanced exercises may be more appropriate for individuals whose goals include maximum gains in strength and lean body mass. However, the existing literature supports the guidelines as outlined in this paper for children and adults of all ages seeking the health and fitness benefits associated with resistance training.Sports Medicine 02/2001; 31(14):953-64. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if significant differences exist among 3 different periodization programs in eliciting changes in strength. Twenty-eight recreationally trained college-aged volunteers (mean +/- SD; 22.29 +/- 3.98) of both genders were tested for bench press, leg press, body fat percentage, chest circumference, and thigh circumference during initial testing. After initial testing, subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training groups: (a) linear periodization (n = 9), (b) daily undulating periodization (n = 10), or (c) weekly undulating periodization (n = 9). The training regimen for each group consisted of a 9-week, 3-day-per-week program. Training loads were assigned as heavy (90%, 4 repetition maximum [4RM]), medium (85%, 6RM), or light (80%, 8RM) for bench press and leg press exercises. Subjects were familiarized with the CR-10 rated perceived exertion scale and instructed to achieve an 8 or 9 on the final repetition of each set for all other exercises. Subjects were then retested after 4 weeks of training. Training loads were then adjusted according to the new 1RM. Subjects were then retested after 5 more weeks of exercise. For all subjects, significant (p < 0.05) increases in bench press and leg press strength were demonstrated at all time points (T1-T3). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between groups for bench press, leg press, body fat percentage, chest circumference, or thigh circumference at all time points. These results indicate that no separation based on periodization model is seen in early-phase training.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 12/2007; 21(4):1245-50. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single-set and multiple-set strength training in women. Twenty-seven women (aged 20-40 years) with basic experience in strength training were randomly allocated to either a single-set group (n = 9), a 3-set group (n = 9), or a nontraining control group (n = 9). Both training groups underwent a whole-body strengthening program, exercising 2 days a week for 6 weeks. Exercises included bilateral leg extension, bilateral leg curl, abdominal crunch, seated hip adduction/abduction, seated bench press, and lateral pull-down. The single-set group's program consisted of only 1 set of 6-9 repetitions until failure, whereas the multiple-set group trained with 3 sets of 6-9 repetitions until failure (rest interval between sets, 2 minutes). Two times before and 3 days after termination of the training program, subjects were tested for their 1 repetition maximum strength on the bilateral leg extension and the seated bench press machine. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance, Scheffé tests, t-tests, and calculation of effect sizes. Both training groups made significant strength improvements in leg extension (multiple-set group, 15%; single-set group, 6%; p 0.05). However, in the seated bench press only the 3-set group showed a significant increase in maximal strength (10%). Calculation of effect sizes and percentage gains revealed higher strength gains in the multiple-set group. No significant differences were found in the control group. These findings suggest superior strength gains occurred following 3-set strength training compared with single-set strength training in women with basic experience in resistance training.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 09/2001; 15(3):284-9. · 1.80 Impact Factor