Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance.
ABSTRACT Kamandulis, S, Snieckus, A, Venckunas, T, Aagaard, P, Masiulis, N, and Skurvydas, A. Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance. J Strength Cond Res 26(11): 2953-2961, 2012-The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (9 training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 minutes after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque. Maximal jump height increased by 7.8 ± 6.3% (p < 0.05), 11.4 ± 3.3% (p < 0.05), and 12.8 ± 3.6% (p < 0.05) at 3, 10, and 17 days after the final training session, respectively. Gains in isometric knee extension MVC (7.9 ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9 ± 9.6%) (both p < 0.05) were observed within 17 days after the end of the training. The magnitude of improvement was greater after this protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent but steep increases in loading intensity and volume may be beneficial to athletic performance.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Physiological responses and performance were examined during and after a simulated trampoline competition (STC). Fifteen elite trampoline gymnasts participated, of which whereas eight completed two routines (EX1 and EX2) and a competition final (EX3). Trampoline-specific activities were quantified by video-analysis. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20 maximal trampoline jump (20-MTJ) performances were assessed. Heart rate (HR) and quadriceps muscle temperature (T m) were recorded and venous blood was drawn. A total of 252 ± 16 jumps were performed during the STC. CMJ performance declined (P < 0.05) by 3.8, 5.2 and 4.2% after EX1, EX2 and EX3, respectively, and was 4.8% lower (P < 0.05) than baseline 24 h post-competition. 20-MTJ flight time was ∼1% shorter (P < 0.05) for jump 1-10 after EX2 and 24 h post STC. T m increased (P < 0.05) to ∼39°C after the warm-up, but declined (P < 0.05) 1.0 and 0.6ºC before EX2 and EX3, respectively. Peak HR was 95-97% HR max during EX1-3. Peak blood lactate, plasma K(+) and NH3 were 6.5 ± 0.5, 6.0 ± 0.2 mmol · l(-1) and 92 ± 10 µmol · l(-1), respectively. Plasma CK increased (P < 0.05) by ∼50 and 65% 0 and 24 h after STC. In conclusion, a trampoline gymnastic competition includes a high number of repeated explosive and energy demanding jumps, which impairs jump performance during and 24 h post-competition.Journal of Sports Sciences 07/2013; DOI:10.1080/02640414.2013.803591 · 2.10 Impact Factor