Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance.
ABSTRACT Kamandulis, S, Snieckus, A, Venckunas, T, Aagaard, P, Masiulis, N, and Skurvydas, A. Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance. J Strength Cond Res 26(11): 2953-2961, 2012-The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (9 training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 minutes after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque. Maximal jump height increased by 7.8 ± 6.3% (p < 0.05), 11.4 ± 3.3% (p < 0.05), and 12.8 ± 3.6% (p < 0.05) at 3, 10, and 17 days after the final training session, respectively. Gains in isometric knee extension MVC (7.9 ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9 ± 9.6%) (both p < 0.05) were observed within 17 days after the end of the training. The magnitude of improvement was greater after this protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent but steep increases in loading intensity and volume may be beneficial to athletic performance.
- SourceAvailable from: Richard L Lieber[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Contractile properties of rabbit tibialis anterior muscles were measured after eccentric contraction to investigate the mechanism of muscle injury. In the first experiment, two groups of muscles were strained 25% of the muscle fiber length at identical rates. However, because the timing of the imposed length change relative to muscle activation was different, the groups experienced dramatically different muscle forces. Because muscle maximum tetanic tension and other contractile parameters measured after 30 min of cyclic activity with either strain timing pattern were identical (P > 0.4), we concluded that muscle damage was equivalent despite very different imposed forces. This result was supported by a second experiment in which the same protocol was performed at one-half the strain (12.5% muscle fiber length). Again, there was no difference in maximum tetanic tension after cyclic 12.5% strain with either strain timing. Data from both experiments were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, which revealed a highly significant effect of strain magnitude (P < 0.001) but no significant effect of stretch timing (P > 0.7). We interpret these data to signify that it is not high force per se that causes muscle damage after eccentric contraction but the magnitude of the active strain (i.e., strain during active lengthening). This conclusion was supported by morphometric analysis showing equivalent area fractions of damaged muscle fibers that were observed throughout the muscle cross section. The active strain hypothesis is described in terms of the interaction between the myofibrillar cytoskeleton, the sarcomere, and the sarcolemma.Journal of Applied Physiology 03/1993; 74(2):520-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
- Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 02/1984; 12:81-121. · 5.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unaccustomed exercise involving stretch of active muscle at long length causes an immediate loss of tension-generating capacity, a shift of optimum length, and changes in excitation-contraction coupling. Eventually, fiber damage may be observed, resulting in pain and tenderness. The subject of this review is the early stage in this process, particularly the cause of the immediate drop in tension. There is strong evidence pointing to sarcomere length instabilities and nonuniformities as important contributors to these changes. The evidence includes the influence of initial length, electron microscopy of rapidly fixed active fibers, the shift in optimum length in single fibers, and the effects of training on sacomere numbers. Experiments using Ca(2+)-sensitive dyes clearly show changes in excitiation-contraction coupling, but cross-species comparisons indicate that these are not always able to explain the consequences seen. We conclude that sarcomere length instabilities provide the most comprehensive explanation of the early consequences of eccentric exercise.Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2000; 87(6):2007-15. · 3.48 Impact Factor