Article

Hospital and neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low-birth-weight infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and spontaneous intestinal perforation

Department of Pediatrics, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association (Impact Factor: 2.35). 12/2011; 32(7):552-8. DOI: 10.1038/jp.2011.176
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We sought to determine the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in surviving extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW, <1000 g birth weight) infants and to establish the impact of NEC on outcomes by hospital discharge and at 18 to 22 months adjusted age in a large, contemporary, population-based practice.
Hospital outcome data for all ELBW infants born in the greater Cincinnati region from 1998 to 2009 were extracted from the National Institute of Child Health Neonatal Research Network Database. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 to 22 months was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II scores for Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index. Multivariable logistic regression was used and adjusted odds ratios reported to control for confounders.
From 1998 to 2009, ELBW infants accounted for 0.5% of the 352 176 live-born infants in greater Cincinnati. The incidence of NEC was 12%, with a 50% case-fatality rate. Death before discharge, morbid complications of prematurity and neurodevelopmental impairment were all increased among infants diagnosed with NEC. Infants with surgical NEC and SIP had a higher incidence of death, but long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not different comparing surviving ELBW infants with medical NEC, surgical NEC and SIP.
Although ELBW infants comprise a very small proportion of live-born infants, those who develop NEC and SIP are at an increased risk for death, morbid complications of prematurity and neurodevelopmental impairment. No significant differences in neurodevelopmental outcomes were observed between the medical and surgical NEC and SIP groups.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Kurt R Schibler, Jun 23, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
211 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal disease, often leading to long term neurodevelopmental impairment. The effect of NEC on the immature brain remains not fully understood. We test the hypothesis that NEC adversely affects functional integrity, particularly neural conduction, of the preterm brainstem. Thirty-two preterm NEC babies (30-36weeks gestation) were recruited at term age. Maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response was recorded and analysed with click rates 91-910/s at term age. The results were compared with normal term babies and age-matched healthy preterm babies. Wave V latency, I-V and III-V intervals, and III-V/I-III interval ratio differed significantly among the three groups of babies at all click rates 91-910/s. Compared with normal term babies, preterm NEC babies showed significant increase in all these MLS BAER variables at all rates, with no apparent abnormalities in wave I and III latencies and I-III interval. All these abnormalities were more significant at higher than at lower click rates. No notable abnormalities were seen in wave amplitudes. Compared with age-matched healthy preterm babies, NEC babies showed similar abnormalities, although the abnormalities were relatively less significant. MLS BAER components that mainly reflect neural conduction in the more central regions of the auditory brainstem were abnormal in preterm NEC babies, although those components that mainly reflect peripheral function were generally normal. Neonatal NEC adversely affects myelination of the more rostral or central regions of the immature brainstem, resulting in delayed or impaired neural conduction, but spares the more peripheral regions.
    Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 03/2014; 125(11). DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2014.03.015 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Gut 09/2013; 63(8). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305928 · 13.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The distal catheter of a ventriculoatrial (VA) cerebrospinal fluid shunt is potentially exposed to bacterial seeding from a subclavian central line. The risk of blood stream infections (BSIs) from central lines increases with administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The potential risks of shunt malfunction or infection in patients with a VA shunt and a concurrent subclavian central line and/or TPN administration have not been studied. A retrospective review of 49 pediatric patients with placement of a VA shunt was performed. Three outcome measures were studied: shunt malfunction, shunt infection, and bacteremia/fungemia requiring shunt removal. All outcomes were measured by 1 year after shunt insertion. We analyzed the following potential risk factors: age at shunt insertion, prior ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt, prior shunt infection, abdominal infection/necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), concurrent subclavian central line, and administration of TPN. The association between each risk factor and outcome was evaluated using Fisher's exact test to generate the relative risk. Additionally, a logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the odds ratio of the outcomes to risk factors considering age as a covariate. The average age at shunt insertion was 6.3 ± 7.6 years. The most common diagnosis was posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity (53.1 %). Fifteen patients (30.1 %) had a shunt malfunction within 1 year, 6 (12.2 %) had a shunt infection, and 3 (6.1 %) required removal of the shunt due to bacteremia/fungemia. The age at shunt insertion was not a statistically significant independent risk factor for any of the three outcomes. Prior shunt infection predicted an increased risk for both future shunt malfunction and infection in both the associative relative risk analysis and the age-dependent logistic regression analysis, although the correlation did not reach statistical significance. The presence of a subclavian central line or TPN administration did not statistically increase the risk over baseline for any of the outcomes in either analysis. The relatively small number of patients limits the power of the study. Considering this limitation, the data suggests that the presence of a concurrent subclavian central line or administration of TPN does not increase the risk of shunt malfunction or infection over the baseline of this high-risk cohort.
    Child s Nervous System 02/2015; 31(4). DOI:10.1007/s00381-015-2656-z · 1.16 Impact Factor