Correcting for inflammation changes estimates of iron deficiency among rural Kenyan preschool children.
ABSTRACT The assessment of iron status where infections are common is complicated by the effects of inflammation on iron indicators and in this study we compared approaches that adjust for this influence. Blood was collected in 680 children (aged 6-35 mo) and indicators of iron status [(hemoglobin (Hb), zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), and TfR/ferritin index)] and subclinical inflammation [(the acute phase proteins (APP) C-reactive protein (CRP), and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)] were determined. Malaria parasitemia was assessed. Subclinical inflammation was defined as CRP >5 mg/L and/or AGP >1 g/L). Four groups were defined based on APP levels: reference (normal CRP and AGP), incubation (raised CRP and normal AGP), early convalescence (raised CRP and AGP), and late convalescence (normal CRP and raised AGP). Correction factors (CF) were estimated as the ratios of geometric means of iron indicators to the reference group of those for each inflammation group. Corrected values of iron indicators within inflammation groups were obtained by multiplying values by their respective group CF. CRP correlated with AGP (r = 0.65; P < 0.001), ferritin (r = 0.38; P < 0.001), Hb (r = -0.27; P < 0.001), and ZP (r = 0.16; P < 0.001); AGP was correlated with ferritin (r = 0.39; P < 0.001), Hb (r = -0.29; P < 0.001), and ZP (r = 0.24; P < 0.001). Use of CF to adjust for inflammation increased the prevalence of ID based on ferritin < 12 μg/L by 34% (from 27 to 41%). Applying the CF strengthened the expected relationship between Hb and ferritin (r = 0.10; P = 0.013 vs. r = 0.20; P < 0.001, before and after adjustment, respectively). Although the use of CF to adjust for inflammation appears indicated, further work is needed to confirm that this approach improves the accuracy of assessment of ID.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the association between a range of inherited blood disorders and indicators of poor nutrition, we analyzed data from a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 882 children 6-35 months of age in western Kenya. Of children with valid measurements, 71.7% were anemic (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL), 19.1% had ferritin levels < 12 μg/L, and 30.9% had retinol binding protein (RBP) levels < 0.7 μmol/L. Unadjusted analyses showed that compared with normal children, α(+)-thalassemia trait individuals had a higher prevalence of anemia (82.3% versus 66.8%, P = 0.001), but a lower prevalence of low RBP (20.5% versus 31.4%, P = 0.024). In multivariable analysis, α(+)-thalassemia trait remained associated with anemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.8, P = 0.004) but not with low RBP (aOR = 0.6, P = 0.065). Among young Kenyan children, α(+)-thalassemia is associated with anemia, whereas G6PD deficiency, haptoglobin 2-2, and HbS are not; none of these blood disorders are associated with iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, or poor growth.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anaemia is prevalent in South East Asia and Fe deficiency (ID) is considered to be the main cause, but the role of subclinical inflammation in the aetiology is uncertain. In the present study, we determined the influence of inflammation on the biomarkers of Fe status in women and children, and herein, we discuss the proportion of anaemia associated with ID. As part of the 2006 Lao People's Democratic Republic (The Lao PDR) National Nutrition Survey, blood collected from 482 young children and 816 non-pregnant women was analysed. Plasma ferritin, transferrin receptor (sTfR), Hb, C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were measured. ID was assessed using ferritin concentrations ( < 12 (children) or < 15 (adults) μg/l), sTfR concentrations (>8·3 mg/l) and body Fe stores (BIS < 0). Elevated CRP (>5 mg/l) and/or AGP (>1 g/l) concentrations were used to categorise inflammation status in order to correct the Fe biomarkers for inflammation. Inflammation was present in 14 % of adults and 43 % of children. Anaemia was present in 37·6 % of both women (Hb concentrations < 120 g/l) and children (Hb concentrations < 110 g/l). Correcting ferritin concentrations for inflammation increased the prevalence of ID from 24·3 to 26 % for women and from 18 to 21 % for children (P< 0·001 for both). Ferritin concentrations were more helpful in detecting ID than sTfR concentrations or BIS, but regression analysis found that sTfr concentrations explained more of the variance in Hb concentrations in both women (20 %) and children (17 %) than ferritin concentrations (5 and 1·4 %, respectively). Nevertheless, the total variance in Hb concentrations explained was only 26 and 18 % in women and children, respectively, and other factors may be more important than ID in contributing to anaemia in The Lao PDR.The British journal of nutrition 06/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain a hidden aspect of malnutrition for which comprehensive data are lacking in school-aged children. We assessed the micronutrient status of Nepalese children, aged 6 to 8 y, born to mothers who participated in a community-based antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial from 1999 to 2001. Of 3305 participants, plasma indicators were assessed in a random sample of 1000 children. Results revealed deficiencies of vitamins A (retinol <0.70 μmol/L, 8.5%), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L, 17.2%), E (α-tocopherol <9.3 μmol/L, 17.9%), K (decarboxy prothombin >2 μg/L, 20%), B12 (cobalamin <150 pmol/L, 18.1%), B6 [pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) <20 nmol/L, 43.1%], and β-carotene (41.5% <0.09 μmol/L), with little folate deficiency (6.2% <13.6 nmol/L). Deficiencies of iron [ferritin <15 μg/L, 10.7%; transferrin receptor (TfR) >8.3 mg/L, 40.1%; TfR:ferritin >500 μg/μg, 14.3%], iodine (thyroglobulin >40 μg/L, 11.4%), and selenium (plasma selenium <0.89 μmol/L, 59.0%) were observed, whereas copper deficiency was nearly absent (plasma copper <11.8 μmol/L, 0.7%). Hemoglobin was not assessed. Among all children, 91.7% experienced at least 1 micronutrient deficiency, and 64.7% experienced multiple deficiencies. Inflammation (α-1 acid glycoprotein >1 g/L, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, or both) was present in 31.6% of children, affecting the prevalence of deficiency as assessed by retinol, β-carotene, PLP, ferritin, TfR, selenium, copper, or having any or multiple deficiencies. For any nutrient, population deficiency prevalence estimates were altered by ≤5.4% by the presence of inflammation, suggesting that the majority of deficiencies exist regardless of inflammation. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist in school-aged children in rural Nepal, meriting more comprehensive strategies for their assessment and prevention.Journal of Nutrition 04/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor