[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in cell cycle arrest by downregulating transcription. Many genes repressed by p53 code for proteins with functions in G 2/M. A large portion of these genes are controlled by cell cycle-dependent elements (CDE) and cell cycle genes homology regions (CHR) in their promoters. Cyclin B2 is an example of such a gene, with a function at the transition from G 2 to mitosis. We find that p53-dependent downregulation of cyclin B2 promoter activity is dependent on an intact CHR element. In the presence of high levels of p53 or p21 (WAF1/CIP1) , protein binding to the CHR switches from MMB to DREAM complex by shifting MuvB core-associated proteins from B-Myb to E2F4/DP1/p130. The results suggest a model for p53-dependent transcriptional repression by which p53 activates directly p21 (WAF1/CIP1) . The inhibitor then prevents further phosphorylation of p130 by cyclin-dependent kinases. The presence of hypophosphorylated pocket proteins shifts the equilibrium for complex formation from MMB to DREAM. In the case of promoters that do not hold CDE or E2F elements, binding of DREAM and MMB solely relies on a CHR site. Thus, p53 can repress target genes indirectly through CHR elements.
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