Our center previously reported its experience with pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies from 1980 to 1996. We aimed to determine the current clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies and compare these findings with our historical series.
Retrospective, cross-sectional study of children, 0 to 18 years of age, who underwent a cholecystectomy from January 2005 to October 2008.
We evaluated 404 patients: 73% girls; 39% Hispanic and 35% white. The mean age was 13.10 ± 0.91 years. The primary indications for surgery in patients 3 years or older were symptomatic cholelithiasis (53%), obstructive disease (28%), and biliary dyskinesia (16%). The median BMI percentile was 89%; 39% were classified as obese. Of the patients with nonhemolytic gallstone disease, 35% were obese and 18% were severely obese; BMI percentile was 99% or higher. Gallstone disease was associated with hemolytic disease in 23% (73/324) of patients and with obesity in 39% (126/324). Logistic regression demonstrated older age (P = .019) and Hispanic ethnicity (P < .0001) as independent risk factors for nonhemolytic gallstone disease. Compared with our historical series, children undergoing cholecystectomy are more likely to be Hispanic (P = .003) and severely obese (P < .0279).
Obesity and Hispanic ethnicity are strongly correlated with symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease. In comparison with our historical series, hemolytic disease is no longer the predominant risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease in children.
"There appears to an increase in the number of children requiring cholecystectomy for symptomatic biliary conditions  . Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard therapy for both adults and children with symptomatic cholelithiasis (SC) and biliary dyskinesia (BD). "
"Gallstones are increasingly found in childhood, not only because of the use of ultrasonography in the workup of abdominal pain but also because of the increase of incidence in obesity worldwide and the high frequency of hemolytic anemias in all countries     . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/purpose:
Gallstones and cholelithiasis are being increasingly diagnosed in children owing to the widespread use of ultrasonography. The treatment of choice is cholecystectomy, and routine intraoperative cholangiography is recommended to explore the common bile duct. The objectives of this study were to describe our experience with the management of gallstone disease in childhood over the last 18 years and to propose an algorithm to guide the approach to cholelithiasis in children based on clinical and ultrasonographic findings.
The data for this study were obtained by reviewing the records of all patients with gallstone disease treated between January 1994 and October 2011. The patients were divided into the following 5 groups based on their symptoms: group 1, asymptomatic; group 2, nonbiliary obstructive symptoms; group 3, acute cholecystitis symptoms; group 4, a history of biliary obstructive symptoms that were completely resolved by the time of surgery; and group 5, ongoing biliary obstructive symptoms. Patients were treated according to an algorithm based on their clinical, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings.
A total of 223 patients were diagnosed with cholelithiasis, and comorbidities were present in 177 patients (79.3%). The most common comorbidities were hemolytic disorders in 139 patients (62.3%) and previous bariatric surgery in 16 (7.1%). Although symptoms were present in 134 patients (60.0%), cholecystectomy was performed for all patients with cholelithiasis, even if they were asymptomatic; the surgery was laparoscopic in 204 patients and open in 19. Fifty-six patients (25.1%) presented with complications as the first sign of cholelithiasis (eg, pancreatitis, choledocolithiasis, or acute calculous cholecystitis). Intraoperative cholangiography was indicated in 15 children, and it was positive in only 1 (0.4%) for whom ERCP was necessary to extract the stone after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Preoperative ERCP was performed in 11 patients to extract the stones, and a hepaticojejunostomy was indicated in 2 patients. There were no injuries to the hepatic artery or common bile duct in our series.
Based on our experience, we can propose an algorithm to guide the approach to cholelithiasis in the pediatric population. The final conclusion is that LC results in limited postoperative complications in children with gallstones. When a diagnosis of choledocolithiasis or dilation of the choledocus is made, ERCP is necessary if obstructive symptoms persist either before or after an LC. Intraoperative cholangiography and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration are not mandatory.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/2012; 47(11):2033-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.06.010 · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of the child with acute abdominal pain is challenging because of the wide range of potential diagnoses. Presenting symptoms, clinical examination, and laboratory findings can guide selection of diagnostic imaging.
Intussusception and intestinal malrotation are potentially serious causes of intestinal obstruction, which are best evaluated by ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal series, respectively. Ultrasound has diagnostic importance in the evaluation of multiple diseases, including appendicitis, by potentially decreasing the need for inpatient observation, cholecystitis and complications of gall stones such as pancreatitis, and ovarian diseases. Pelvic inflammatory disease should be considered in evaluation of a teenage girl with lower abdominal pain. Less common causes of acute abdominal pain include ingested foreign bodies, infected congenital anomalies, and perforated peptic ulcer disease.
Presenting symptoms and physical examination findings can narrow the number of potential diagnoses in pediatric acute abdominal pain and thereby guide diagnostic imaging selection. Abdominal/pelvic ultrasound, rather than computed tomography scan, is the preferred modality for initial evaluation of many potential causes of pediatric abdominal pain.
Current opinion in pediatrics 03/2012; 24(3):357-64. DOI:10.1097/MOP.0b013e328352704e · 2.53 Impact Factor
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