Leiomodin 1, a new serum response factor-dependent target gene expressed preferentially in differentiated smooth muscle cells.

Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 12/2011; 287(4):2459-67. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.302224
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation is defined largely by a number of cell-restricted genes governed directly by the serum response factor (SRF)/myocardin (MYOCD) transcriptional switch. Here, we describe a new SRF/MYOCD-dependent, SMC-restricted gene known as Leiomodin 1 (Lmod1). Conventional and quantitative RT-PCRs indicate that Lmod1 mRNA expression is enriched in SMC-containing tissues of the mouse, whereas its two paralogs, Lmod2 and Lmod3, exhibit abundant expression in skeletal and cardiac muscle with very low levels in SMC-containing tissues. Western blotting and immunostaining of various adult and embryonic mouse tissues further confirm SMC-specific expression of the LMOD1 protein. Comparative genomic analysis of the human LMOD1 and LMOD2 genes with their respective mouse and rat orthologs shows high conservation between the three exons and several noncoding sequences, including the immediate 5' promoter region. Two conserved CArG boxes are present in both the LMOD1 and LMOD2 promoter regions, although LMOD1 displays much higher promoter activity and is more responsive to SRF/MYOCD stimulation. Gel shift assays demonstrate clear binding between SRF and the two CArG boxes in human LMOD1. Although the CArG boxes in LMOD1 and LMOD2 are similar, only LMOD1 displays SRF or MYOCD-dependent activation. Transgenic mouse studies reveal wild type LMOD1 promoter activity in cardiac and vascular SMC. Such activity is abolished upon mutation of both CArG boxes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Lmod1 is a new SMC-restricted SRF/MYOCD target gene.

Download full-text


Available from: Joseph Miano, Feb 03, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC.
    Frontiers in Physiology 04/2012; 3:81. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00081 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tropomodulins are a family of four proteins (Tmods 1-4) that cap the pointed ends of actin filaments in actin cytoskeletal structures in a developmentally regulated and tissue-specific manner. Unique among capping proteins, Tmods also bind tropomyosins (TMs), which greatly enhance the actin filament pointed-end capping activity of Tmods. Tmods are defined by a TM-regulated/Pointed-End Actin Capping (TM-Cap) domain in their unstructured N-terminal portion, followed by a compact, folded Leucine-Rich Repeat/Pointed-End Actin Capping (LRR-Cap) domain. By inhibiting actin monomer association and dissociation from pointed ends, Tmods regulate actin dynamics and turnover, stabilizing actin filament lengths and cytoskeletal architecture. In this review, we summarize the genes, structural features, molecular and biochemical properties, actin regulatory mechanisms, expression patterns, and cell and tissue functions of Tmods. By understanding Tmods' functions in the context of their molecular structure, actin regulation, binding partners, and related variants (leiomodins 1-3), we can draw broad conclusions that can explain the diverse morphological and functional phenotypes that arise from Tmod perturbation experiments in vitro and in vivo. Tmod-based stabilization and organization of intracellular actin filament networks provide key insights into how the emergent properties of the actin cytoskeleton drive tissue morphogenesis and physiology.
    Cytoskeleton 06/2012; 69(6):337-70. DOI:10.1002/cm.21031 · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Full genome annotation requires gene expression analysis and elucidation of promoter activity. Here, we analyzed the expression and promoter of a highly restricted integrin gene, Itga8. RNase protection and quantitative RT-PCR showed Itga8 to be expressed most abundantly in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Transcription start site mapping of Itga8 revealed the immediate 5' promoter region to be poorly conserved with orthologous sequences in the human genome. Further comparative sequence analysis showed a number of conserved non-coding sequence modules around the Itga8 gene. The immediate promoter region and an upstream conserved sequence module were each found to contain a CArG box, which is a binding site for serum response factor (SRF). Luciferase reporter assays revealed activity of several Itga8 promoter constructs with no apparent restricted activity to SMC types. Further, neither SRF nor its coactivator, Myocardin (MYOCD), was able to induce several distinct Itga8 promoter constructs. Transgenic mouse studies failed to reveal Itga8 promoter activity indicating distal regulatory elements likely control this gene's in vivo expression profile. Interestingly, although the promoter was unresponsive to SRF/MYOCD, the endogenous Itga8 gene showed increases in expression upon ectopic MYOCD expression even though knockdown of SRF both in vitro and in vivo failed to demonstrate a corresponding change in Itga8. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Itga8 expression is CArG-SRF independent, but MYOCD dependent through an as yet unknown sequence module that is distal from the promoter region.
    Gene 11/2012; 513(1). DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2012.10.073 · 2.08 Impact Factor