To gain insight in the ongoing HIV transmission, we compared sexual risk behaviour pre-HIV and post-HIV seroconversion in 206 MSM participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (1984-2008) before and after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
MSM completed behavioural questionnaires and were tested for HIV antibodies every 6 months. Trends in anal intercourse and number of sex partners from 4 years before HIV seroconversion until 4 years after diagnosis were analysed with latent class random effects logistic regression models.
The risk of having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 1 year after HIV diagnosis decreased significantly when compared with 1 year before diagnosis in both the pre-cART era [difference, 30%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 22-36%] and cART era (difference, 19%; 95% CI, 9-30%). In contrast to a continuing decrease of UAI in the pre-cART era, the probability of UAI in the cART era increased again to preseroconversion levels (61%; 95% CI, 48-74%)) 4 years after diagnosis.
This study provides evidence that recently seroconverted MSM reduce their sexual risk behaviour following HIV diagnosis both in the pre-cART as well as the cART period. However, in the cART period this reduction in sexual risk behaviour is less and returns to pre-cART levels within 4 years. These findings not only confirm the need for early HIV testing but also make it clear that much more effort should go into identifying, counselling, and possibly treating recently seroconverted MSM who have been found to be one of the most important drivers of HIV transmission among MSM.
"The incidence of HIV-1 dual infections is increasing in Amsterdam from an absence in early years to 1.0-2.4% in 2003-2007 [79,80]. The clinically unfavourable outcome of dual infection should translate into preventive strategies, in particular because dual infection is associated with risk-taking behaviour that has been reported to increase in recent years . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An HIV-1 diagnostic laboratory was established in the Academic Medical Center (AMC) of the University of Amsterdam after the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The first AIDS patients were diagnosed here in 1981 and since 1983 we have tested the samples of 50992 patients using a variety of assays that greatly improved over the years. We will describe some of the basic results from this diagnostic laboratory and then focus on the spin-off in terms of the development of novel virus assays to detect super-infections and ultra-sensitive assays to measure the intracellular HIV-1 RNA load. We also review several original research findings in the field of HIV-1 virology that stem from initial observations made in the diagnostic unit. This includes the study of genetic defects in the HIV-1 genome and time trends of the replication fitness over 30 years of viral evolution, but also the description of novel HIV-1 variants in difficult-to-diagnose clinical specimen.
"In contrast, women reported decreasing rates of RSB with each year of ART use, which was independent of CD4 and temporal changes. Our findings add data to an emerging theory of sexual behavior trends among PLWHA on ART: namely, that while RSB decreases after initiating ART in most populations , , that some important sub-populations also appear to report increasing RSB over time, to levels at or near pre-initiation rates , , . This finding is of critical importance to public health experts working to decrease HIV transmission, and raises important questions about the causes of differing sexual behavior patterns, the role of targeted interventions to sub-populations, and the relationships between RSB and drug adherence. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In resource-rich areas, risky sexual behavior (RSB) largely diminishes after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy, with notable exceptions among some populations who perceive a protected benefit from anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Yet, there is limited data about long-term trends in risky sexual behavior among HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa after initiation of anti-retroviral therapy.
We administered questionnaires every three months to collect sexual behavior data among patients taking ART in southwestern Uganda over four years of follow-up time. We defined RSB as having unprotected sex with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner, or unprotected sex with a casual partner. We fit logistic regression models to estimate changes in RSB by time on ART, with and without adjustment for calendar year and CD4 count.
506 participants were enrolled between 2005 and 2011 and contributed a median of 13 visits and 3.5 years of observation time. The majority were female (70%) and median age was 34 years (interquartile range 29-39). There was a decrease in the proportion of men reporting RSB from the pre-ART visit to the first post-ART visit (16.2 to 4.3%, p<0.01) but not women (14.1 to 13.3%, p = 0.80). With each year of ART, women reported decreasing RSB (OR 0.85 per year, 95%CI 0.74-0.98, p = 0.03). In contrast, men had increasing odds of reporting RSB with each year of ART to near pre-treatment rates (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.14-1.74, p = 0.001), which was partially confounded by changes in calendar time and CD4 count (AOR = 1.24, 95%CI 0.92-1.67, p = 0.16).
Men in southwestern Uganda reported increasing RSB over four years on ART, to levels approaching pre-treatment rates. Strategies to promote long-term safe sex practices targeted to HIV-infected men on ART might have a significant impact on preventing HIV transmission in this setting.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69634. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069634 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efforts to identify all persons infected with HIV in the United States are driven by the hope that early diagnosis will lower risk behaviors and decrease HIV transmission. Identification of HIV-infected people earlier in the course of their infection with HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assays (4th-generation HIV assays) should help achieve this goal. We compared HIV RNA nucleic acid test (NAT) results to the results of a 4th-generation Ag/Ab assay (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo [HIV Combo] assay; Abbott Diagnostics) in 2,744 HIV antibody-negative samples. Fourteen people with acute HIV infection (HIV antibody negative/NAT positive) were identified; the HIV Combo assay detected nine of these individuals and was falsely negative in the remaining five. All five persons missed by the HIV Combo assay were in the stage of exponential increase in plasma virus associated with acute HIV infection (3, 7, 20, 35, 48). In contrast, most acutely infected persons detected by the HIV Combo assay demonstrated either a plateauing or decreasing plasma viral load. The HIV Combo assay also classified as positive five other samples which were negative by NAT. Taken together, the HIV Combo assay had a sensitivity of 73.7% and a specificity of 99.8%. Using published data, we estimated secondary transmission events had HIV infection in these five individuals remained undiagnosed. Screening of our population with NAT cost more than screening with the HIV Combo assay but achieved new diagnoses that we predict resulted in health care savings that far exceed screening costs. These findings support the use of more sensitive assays, like NAT, in HIV screening of populations with a high prevalence of acute HIV infection.
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