Less decrease in risk behaviour from pre-HIV to post-HIV seroconversion among MSM in the combination antiretroviral therapy era compared with the pre-combination antiretroviral therapy era.
ABSTRACT To gain insight in the ongoing HIV transmission, we compared sexual risk behaviour pre-HIV and post-HIV seroconversion in 206 MSM participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (1984-2008) before and after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
MSM completed behavioural questionnaires and were tested for HIV antibodies every 6 months. Trends in anal intercourse and number of sex partners from 4 years before HIV seroconversion until 4 years after diagnosis were analysed with latent class random effects logistic regression models.
The risk of having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 1 year after HIV diagnosis decreased significantly when compared with 1 year before diagnosis in both the pre-cART era [difference, 30%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 22-36%] and cART era (difference, 19%; 95% CI, 9-30%). In contrast to a continuing decrease of UAI in the pre-cART era, the probability of UAI in the cART era increased again to preseroconversion levels (61%; 95% CI, 48-74%)) 4 years after diagnosis.
This study provides evidence that recently seroconverted MSM reduce their sexual risk behaviour following HIV diagnosis both in the pre-cART as well as the cART period. However, in the cART period this reduction in sexual risk behaviour is less and returns to pre-cART levels within 4 years. These findings not only confirm the need for early HIV testing but also make it clear that much more effort should go into identifying, counselling, and possibly treating recently seroconverted MSM who have been found to be one of the most important drivers of HIV transmission among MSM.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the prevalence and association of sexual risk behaviours and viral suppression among HIV-infected adults in the United States. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of weighted data from a probability sample of HIV-infected adults receiving outpatient medical care. The facility and patient response rates were 76 and 51%, respectively. Methods: We analysed 2009 interview and medical record data. Sexual behaviours were self-reported in the past 12 months. Viral suppression was defined as all viral load measurements in the medical record during the past 12 months less than 200 copies/ml. Results: An estimated 98 022 (24%) HIV-infected adults engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal sex; 50 953 (12%) engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal sex with at least one partner of negative or unknown HIV status; 23 933 (6%) did so while not virally suppressed. Persons who were virally suppressed were less likely than persons who were not suppressed to engage in vaginal or anal sex [prevalence ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.93]; unprotected vaginal or anal sex (prevalence ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.98); and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a partner of negative or unknown HIV status (prevalence ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99). Conclusion: The majority of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the U.S. did not engage in sexual risk behaviours that have the potential to transmit HIV, and of the 12% who did, approximately half were not virally suppressed. Persons who were virally suppressed were less likely than persons who were not suppressed to engage in sexual risk behaviours.AIDS (London, England) 05/2014; 28(8):1203-1211. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000273 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Positive choices (PC), a brief sexual risk reduction intervention conducted with newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM), was evaluated for preliminary efficacy. Participants were enrolled if they reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the three months prior to HIV diagnosis (n = 102). Three months after diagnosis, participants completed baseline assessments and were randomly assigned to receive the 3-session PC intervention or the comprehensive standard of care (C-SoC) at a community health center. Participants completed assessments at 3- (post intervention), 6-, and 9- months after baseline. Compared to C-SoC participants, PC participants significantly reduced the frequency of UAI with HIV serodiscordant (HIV negative or status unknown) partners over the 9-month follow-up period. No differences by condition were found in the frequency of UAI with all partners. The findings from this trial suggest that brief risk reduction approaches for newly-diagnosed MSM integrated into HIV care can benefit secondary HIV prevention efforts.AIDS and Behavior 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10461-014-0782-3 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prevention of sexually acquired HIV infection now includes both consistent condom use and daily use of oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Persons at substantial HIV risk can now use one or both prevention methods, but a combined HIV protective effect has not been assessed. We use deterministic models to examine the impact of method adherence and rates of PrEP and male condom use on number of anticipated HIV infections. Analyses were based on hypothetical cohorts of 10,000 African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM), a population with the highest HIV incidence in the United States. Parameters used in the model (condom effectiveness, PrEP effectiveness, HIV incidence) were based on published findings. Among AAMSM who never use PrEP, an estimated 323 annual HIV infections would occur among those who always use condoms, 1007 among sometimes condom users, and 1094 among never condoms users. Among AAMSM who never (or inconsistently) use condoms, 295 (272) infections would occur among those who report at least 90% PrEP adherence and 744 (684) infection occur with less than 50% adherence. Among AAMSM who are consistently (or sometimes) taking PrEP, the highest protection is seen with consistent condom use, 87 (220) HIV infections and 92.0% (79.9%) prevention effectiveness. Among AAMSM with inconsistent or never condom use, the addition of PrEP at either modest or high adherence can increase HIV protection. For consistent condom users, any PrEP use can increase HIV protection. These analyses provide an approach for rethinking HIV risk management by calculating combined HIV protective effects of using one or more effective prevention methods.Sex Transm Dis 02/2015; 42(2):88-92. DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000238 · 2.75 Impact Factor