Small Dense Lipoproteins, Apolipoprotein B, and Risk of Coronary Events in HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study

Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.56). 12/2011; 60(2):135-42. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31824476e1
Source: PubMed


HIV infection and exposure to certain antiretroviral drugs is associated with dyslipidemia and increased risk for coronary events. Whether this risk is mediated by highly atherogenic lipoproteins is unclear. We investigated the association of highly atherogenic small dense low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and apolipoprotein B and coronary events in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy.
We conducted a case-control study nested into the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to investigate the association of small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B and coronary events in 98 antiretroviral drug-treated patients with a first coronary event (19 fatal and 79 nonfatal coronary events with 53 definite and 15 possible myocardial infarctions, 11 angioplasties or bypasses) and 393 treated controls matched for age, gender, and smoking status. Lipids were measured by ultracentrifugation.
In models including cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, central obesity, diabetes, and family history, there was an independent association between small dense LDL and coronary events [odds ratio (OR) for 1 mg/dL increase: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.11] and apolipoprotein B (OR for 10 mg/dL increase: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.32). When adding HIV and antiretroviral therapy-related variables, ORs were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.10) for small dense LDL and 1.13 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.30) for apolipoprotein B. In both models, blood pressure and HIV viral load was independently associated with the odds for coronary events.
HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with elevate small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B are at increased risk for coronary events as are patients without sustained HIV suppression.

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