Crystal structure of the Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein.
ABSTRACT Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading global cause of viral encephalitis. The JEV envelope protein (E) facilitates cellular attachment and membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We have determined the 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of the JEV E ectodomain refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. The E protein possesses the three domains characteristic of flavivirus envelopes and epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies onto the structure reveals determinants that correspond to the domain I lateral ridge, fusion loop, domain III lateral ridge, and domain I-II hinge. While monomeric in solution, JEV E assembles as an antiparallel dimer in the crystal lattice organized in a highly similar fashion as seen in cryo-electron microscopy models of mature flavivirus virions. The dimer interface, however, is remarkably small and lacks many of the domain II contacts observed in other flavivirus E homodimers. In addition, uniquely conserved histidines within the JEV serocomplex suggest that pH-mediated structural transitions may be aided by lateral interactions outside the dimer interface in the icosahedral virion. Our results suggest that variation in dimer structure and stability may significantly influence the assembly, receptor interaction, and uncoating of virions.
Article: Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus induced by natural infection neutralize at a postattachment step.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is now a primary cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Studies of mice have demonstrated that the humoral immune response against WNV limits primary infection and protects against a secondary challenge. The most-potent neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognize an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII-lr) of the envelope (E) protein. However, studies with serum from human patients show that antibodies against the DIII-lr epitope comprise, at best, a minor component of the human anti-WNV antibody response. Herein, we characterize in detail two WNV-specific human MAbs, CR4348 and CR4354, that were isolated from B-cell populations of convalescent patients. These MAbs strongly neutralize WNV infection of cultured cells, protect mice against lethal infection in vivo, and yet poorly recognize recombinant forms of the E protein. Instead, CR4348 and CR4354 bind determinants on intact WNV virions and subviral particles in a pH-sensitive manner, and neutralization is altered by mutations at the dimer interface in domain II and the hinge between domains I and II, respectively. CR4348 and CR4354 human MAbs neutralize infection at a postattachment step in the viral life cycle, likely by inhibiting acid-induced fusion within the endosome.Journal of Virology 05/2009; 83(13):6494-507. · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dengue virus is an emerging global health threat. Its major envelope glycoprotein, E, mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. A crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of E from dengue virus type 2 reveals a hydrophobic pocket lined by residues that influence the pH threshold for fusion. The pocket, which accepts a hydrophobic ligand, opens and closes through a conformational shift in a beta-hairpin at the interface between two domains. These features point to a structural pathway for the fusion-activating transition and suggest a strategy for finding small-molecule inhibitors of dengue and other flaviviruses.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2003; 100(12):6986-91. · 9.68 Impact Factor