The role of nuclear lamin B1 in cell proliferation and senescence.
ABSTRACT Nuclear lamin B1 (LB1) is a major structural component of the nucleus that appears to be involved in the regulation of many nuclear functions. The results of this study demonstrate that LB1 expression in WI-38 cells decreases during cellular senescence. Premature senescence induced by oncogenic Ras also decreases LB1 expression through a retinoblastoma protein (pRb)-dependent mechanism. Silencing the expression of LB1 slows cell proliferation and induces premature senescence in WI-38 cells. The effects of LB1 silencing on proliferation require the activation of p53, but not pRb. However, the induction of premature senescence requires both p53 and pRb. The proliferation defects induced by silencing LB1 are accompanied by a p53-dependent reduction in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be rescued by growth under hypoxic conditions. In contrast to the effects of LB1 silencing, overexpression of LB1 increases the proliferation rate and delays the onset of senescence of WI-38 cells. This overexpression eventually leads to cell cycle arrest at the G1/S boundary. These results demonstrate the importance of LB1 in regulating the proliferation and senescence of human diploid cells through a ROS signaling pathway.
Article: Loss of p53 causes mitochondrial DNA depletion and altered mitochondrial reactive oxygen species homeostasis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In addition to its central role in cellular stress signaling, the tumor suppressor p53 modulates mitochondrial respiration through its nuclear transcription factor activity and localizes to mitochondria, where it enhances apoptosis and suppresses mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis. Here we demonstrate a new conserved role for p53 in mtDNA copy number maintenance and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. In mammals, mtDNA is present at thousands of copies per cell and is essential for normal development and cell function. We show that p53 null mouse and p53 knockdown human primary fibroblasts exhibit mtDNA depletion and decreased mitochondrial mass under normal culture growth conditions. This is accompanied by a reduction of the p53R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase mRNA and protein and of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) at the protein level only. Finally, p53-depleted cells exhibit significant disruption of cellular ROS homeostasis, characterized by reduced mitochondrial and cellular superoxide levels and increased cellular hydrogen peroxide. Altogether, these results elucidate additional mitochondria-related functions for p53 and implicate mtDNA depletion and ROS alterations as potentially relevant to cellular transformation, cancer cell phenotypes, and the Warburg Effect.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2009; 1787(5):328-34. · 4.66 Impact Factor