The expression and function of vascular endothelial growth factor in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is regulated by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and glutathione S-transferaseA4-4.
ABSTRACT It is well established that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) plays a major role in oxidative stress-induced signaling and the toxicity of oxidants. Surprisingly our recent studies also demonstrate that low levels of HNE generated during oxidative stress promote cell survival mechanisms and proliferation. Since the expression and secretion of VEGF is known to be affected by Oxidative stress, during present studies, we have examined dose dependent effect of HNE on VEGF expression and secretion in a model of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture. Results of these studies showed that while inclusion of 0.1 μM HNE in the medium caused increased secretion of VEGF, its secretion and expression was significantly suppressed in the presence of >5 μM HNE in the media. These concentration dependent hormetic effects of HNE on VEGF secretion could be blocked by the over expression of GSTA4-4 indicating that these effects were specifically attributed to HNE and regulated by GSTA4-4. VEGF secreted into the media showed angiogenic properties as indicated by increased migration and tube formation of HUVEC in matrigel when grown in media from RPE cells treated with 1 μM HNE. The corresponding media from GSTA4-4 over expressing RPE cells had no effect on migration and tube formation of HUVEC in matrigel. These results are consistent with earlier studies showing that at low concentrations, HNE promotes proliferative mechanisms and suggest that HNE induces VEGF secretion from RPE cells that acts in a paracrine fashion to induce angiogenic signaling mechanism in the endothelial cells. These findings may suggest a role of HNE and GSTA4-4 in oxidative stress induced proliferative retinopathies.
Article: Heat shock factor 1 attenuates 4-Hydroxynonenal-mediated apoptosis: critical role for heat shock protein 70 induction and stabilization of Bcl-XL.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation is a consequence of both normal physiology and oxidative stress that generates various reactive metabolites, a principal end product being 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). As a diffusible electrophile, HNE reacts extensively with cellular nucleophiles. Consequently, HNE alters cellular signaling and activates the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. We have previously demonstrated that in addition to promoting apoptosis, HNE activates stress response pathways, including the antioxidant, endoplasmic reticulum stress, DNA damage, and heat shock responses. Here we demonstrate that activation of the heat shock response by HNE is dependent on the expression and nuclear translocation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which promotes the expression of heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) and Hsp70-1. Ectopic expression and immunoprecipitation of c-Myc-tagged Hsp70-1 indicates that HNE disrupts the inhibitory interaction between Hsp70-1 and HSF1, leading to the activation heat shock gene expression. Using siRNA to silence HSF1 expression, we observe that HSF1 is necessary for the induction of Hsp40 and Hsp70-1 by HNE, and the lack of Hsp expression is correlated with an increase in apoptosis. Nrf2, the transcription factor that mediates the antioxidant response, was also silenced using siRNA. Silencing Nrf2 also enhanced the cytotoxicity of HNE, but not as effectively as HSF1. Silencing HSF1 expression facilitates the activation of JNK pro-apoptotic signaling and selectively decreases expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bcl-X(L). Overexpression of Bcl-X(L) attenuates HNE-mediated apoptosis in HSF1-silenced cells. Overall, activation of HSF1 and stabilization of Bcl-X(L) mediate a protective response that may contribute significantly to the cellular biology of lipid peroxidation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2007; 282(46):33412-20. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Cross talk between c-Met and epidermal growth factor receptor during retinal pigment epithelial wound healing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors sought to determine how hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cross talk in response to injury in human ARPE-19 cells. A scratch wound was made on a cell monolayer of ARPE-19 cells using a sequence-comb or a pipet tip, and it was allowed to heal in the presence or absence of HGF and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The activation of EGFR was analyzed by immunoprecipitation with EGFR antibody, followed by Western blotting with phosphotyrosine-specific antibody. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT (a major substrate of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) was assessed by Western blotting. The release of c-Met ectodomain into the culture media was determined by Western blotting using an antibody against the extracellular region. Cell migration was assessed by Boyden chamber migration assay. ARPE-19 cells underwent spontaneous wound healing in basal medium, and exogenously added HB-EGF and HGF significantly enhanced wound closure. Basal and growth factor-enhanced wound closures were attenuated but not slowed by hydroxyurea, a cell proliferation inhibitor. RPE cells expressed all four erbBs, and wounding induced EGFR transactivation and downstream ERK and PI3K phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells. HGF also induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. The EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 blocked wound- and HGF-stimulated EGFR transactivation and attenuated spontaneous and growth factor-induced wound closure. Wounding and EGFR ligands induced the release of c-Met into the culture media. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with HB-EGF impaired ARPE-19 migration toward HGF in a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor-sensitive manner. EGFR modulates HGF/c-Met activity by inducing c-Met ectodomain shedding, and HGF/c-Met transactivates EGFR, leading to an enhanced activation of downstream signaling pathways. Cross talk between EGFR and c-Met may play a key role in regulating RPE cell migration, proliferation, and wound healing.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 06/2007; 48(5):2242-8. · 3.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) forms as a consequence of oxidative stress. By electrophilic attack on biological macromolecules, 4-HNE mediates signaling or may cause toxicity. A major route of 4-HNE disposal is via glutathione conjugation, in the mouse catalyzed primarily by glutathione transferase mGSTA4-4. Unexpectedly, mGsta4-null mice, in which 4-HNE detoxification is impaired, have an extended life span. This finding could be explained by the observed activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 in the knockout mice, which in turn leads to an induction of antioxidant and antielectrophilic defenses. Especially, the latter could provide a detoxification mechanism that contributes to enhanced longevity. We propose that disruption of 4-HNE conjugation elicits a hormetic response in which an initially increased supply of 4-HNE is translated into activation of Nrf2, leading to a new steady state in which the rise of 4-HNE concentrations is dampened, but life-extending detoxification mechanisms are concomitantly induced.The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 10/2009; 65(1):14-23. · 4.60 Impact Factor