Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Outcomes for Acute Ischemic Stroke
ABSTRACT Racial and ethnic disparities in acute stroke care in the United States have been previously reported. This study investigated possible racial and ethnic disparities in the administration and outcome of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) therapy for acute ischemic stroke in whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Using the National Inpatient Sample for 2001-2008, we selected patients with a primary diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who received treatment with rtPA. Patient data were stratified by race (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander). We analyzed the association of patient race on rtPA utilization rate, in-hospital morbidity (ie, discharge to long-term facility), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) rate, and in-hospital mortality. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors of poor outcomes. White patients had a higher rate of tPA utilization than black and Hispanic patients (2.3% vs 1.8% and 2.0%, respectively; P < .0001 for both groups). There was no difference in the rate of tPA utilization between whites and Asian/Pacific Islanders (2.3% vs 2.2% P = .07). Multivariate analysis of morbidity, mortality, and ICH rates found that Asian/Pacific Islanders had significantly higher rates of mortality (odds ratio, 1.22, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.44; P = .02) and ICH (odds ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-2.11; P < .0001) compared with whites. rtPA utilization was greater in white and Asian/Pacific Islander patients than in black and Hispanic patients. Asian/Pacific Islander race was associated with increased risk of ICH and mortality after rtPA administration.
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ABSTRACT: It is controversial whether patients at high risk for pulmonary embolism (PE) should receive prophylactic inferior vena cava filters (IVC) filters. This lack of clarity creates the potential for variability and disparities in care. We hypothesized there would be differential use of prophylactic IVC filters for patients at high risk for PE on the basis of insurance status. We performed a retrospective analysis using the National Trauma Databank (2002-2007). We included adult patients at high risk for PE (traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury) and excluded patients with a diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or PE. Logistic regression was performed to control for confounders and a hierarchical mixed effects model was used to control for center. A prophylactic filter was placed in 3,331 (4.3%) patients in the study cohort. Patients without insurance had an IVC filter placed less often compared with those with any form of insurance (2.7% vs 4.9%, respectively). After adjusting for confounders, we found that patients without insurance were less likely to receive a prophylactic IVC filter, even when we controlled for center (OR 5.3, P < .001). When guidelines lack clarity, unconscious bias has the potential to create a system with different levels of care based on socioeconomic disparities.Surgery 08/2012; 152(2):232-7. DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2012.05.041 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that socioeconomic disparities in access to treatment of cerebrovascular diseases exist. We studied the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to determine if disparities exist in utilization of mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Using the NIS for the years 2006-2010, we selected all discharges with a primary diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who received mechanical thrombectomy for stroke were identified by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, procedure code 39.74. We examined the utilization rates of mechanical thrombectomy by race/ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander), income quartile (first, second to third, and fourth), and insurance status (Medicare, Medicaid, self-pay, and private). We also studied thrombectomy utilization rates at hospitals that performed thrombectomy. Results: From 2006 to 2010, 2,087,017 patients were hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke; 8946 patients (.4%) received mechanical thrombectomy. Compared with white patients, black patients had significantly lower rates of overall mechanical thrombectomy utilization (odds ratio [OR] = .59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .55-.64, P < .0001) and at centers that offered mechanical thrombectomy (OR = .44, 95% CI = .41-.47, P < .0001). Compared with patients in the highest income quartile, patients in the lowest income quartile had significantly lower rates of mechanical thrombectomy utilization both overall (OR = .66, 95% CI = .62-.70, P < .0001) and at centers that offered mechanical thrombectomy (OR = .80, 95% CI = .75-.84, P < .0001). Compared with patients with private insurance, self-pay patients had significantly lower mechanical thrombectomy utilization both overall (OR = .71, 95% CI = .64-.78, P < .0001) and at centers that offered mechanical thrombectomy (OR = .81, 95% CI = .74-.90, P < .0001). Conclusions: Significant socioeconomic disparities exist in the utilization of mechanical thrombectomy in the United States.American Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3708 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object: The goal of this study was to determine racial/ethnic differences in inpatient mortality rates and the use of institutional postacute care following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the U.S. Methods: A cross-sectional study of hospital discharges for SAH was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2005-2010. Discharges with a principal diagnosis of SAH were identified and abstracted using the appropriate ICD-9-CM diagnostic code. Racial/ethnic groups were defined as white, black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and American Indian. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed comparing racial/ethnic groups with respect to the primary outcome of risk of in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcome of likelihood of discharge to institutional care. Results: During the study period, 31,631 discharges were related to SAH. Race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of death (p = 0.003) and discharge to institutional care (p ≤ 0.001). In the adjusted analysis, compared with white patients, API patients were at higher risk of death (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13-1.59) and Hispanic patients were at lower risk of death (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97). The likelihood of discharge to institutional care was statistically similar between white, Hispanic, API, and Native American patients. Black patients were more likely to be discharged to institutional care compared with white patients (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.14-1.40), but were similar to white patients in the risk of death. Conclusions: Significant racial/ethnic differences are present in the risk of inpatient mortality and discharge to institutional care among patients with SAH in the US. Outcome is likely to be poor among API patients and best among Hispanic patients compared with other groups.Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2013; 119(6). DOI:10.3171/2013.7.JNS13544 · 3.74 Impact Factor