The impact of operative approach for oesophageal cancer on outcome: the transhiatal approach may influence circumferential margin involvement.
ABSTRACT Surgery for oesophageal cancer remains the only means of cure for invasive tumours. It is claimed that the surgical approach for these cancers impacts on morbidity and may influence the ability to achieve tumour clearance and therefore survival, however there is no conclusive evidence to support one approach over another. This study aims to determine the impact of operative approach on tumour margin involvement and survival.
Data were extracted from the Scottish Audit of Gastric and Oesophageal Cancer (SAGOC), a prospective population-based audit of all oesophageal and gastric cancers in Scotland between 1997 and 1999 with a minimum of five-year follow up. Analysis focused on the three commonest approaches (Ivor Lewis n = 140, transhiatal n = 68, left thoraco-laparotomy n = 142) for oesophageal cancer.
Operative approach had no significant impact on post-operative morbidity, mortality, overall margin involvement and survival. Transhiatal approach resulted in significantly more circumferential margin involvement (p = 0.019), and the presence of circumferential margin involvement significantly reduced five-year survival (median survival 13 months) compared to no margin involvement (median survival 25 months, p = 0.001).
Surgical approach for oesophageal cancer had no significant effect on morbidity, post-operative mortality and five-year survival. Non-selective use of the transhiatal approach is associated with a significantly greater circumferential margin involvement, with positive circumferential margin impacting adversely on 5-year survival.
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ABSTRACT: Between 1965 and 1984, 72 patients underwent operation for adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus or gastric cardia. A standard transthoracic esophagogastrectomy and esophagogastrostomy was performed in 43 and a transhiatal esophagectomy without thoracotomy and partial proximal gastrectomy was performed in 29. There was no significant difference between the two groups in age, sex, or TNM tumor staging. The perioperative complication rate was 86% in the esophagogastrectomy patients and 48% in the transhiatal esophagectomy patients (p less than 0.05). Mortality was higher in the esophagogastrectomy group (14%) than in the transhiatal esophagectomy group (7%). Average operative blood loss was greater in the esophagogastrectomy patients (2,510 versus 1,187 ml). Average postoperative hospitalization was longer for the esophagogastrectomy patients (22.2 days versus 12.3 days). Both differences are statistically significant (p less than 0.05). Late results, as evaluated by life-table analysis, showed no significant difference in survival between the two groups of patients. Because the morbidity and mortality rates of transhiatal esophagectomy are as low as or lower than those for esophagogastrectomy, late survival is as good, and palliation is superior (less suture-line tumor recurrence and reflux esophagitis), we believe that transhiatal esophagectomy is the preferred operative approach in patients with adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus or gastric cardia.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 03/1986; 91(2):242-7. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The anatomic extent of tumor (TNM, pTNM) and, in case of treatment, the residual tumor status following treatment (residual tumor, or R classification) are the strongest predictors for outcome of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. The results of the pTNM and the R classifications depend on the methods used. In particular, the pN classification correlates with the number of nodes examined. The findings of micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in bone marrow should be indicated, and such cases must be analyzed separately from other metastatic cases. The same applies to patients with positive cytology in ascites fluid or peritoneal washings without gross involvement of the peritoneum. For the R classification the additional descriptors (conv), for conventional methods used, and (soph), for sophisticated, are recommended to indicate the methods used for classification. In general, long-term survival can be expected only after R0 resection (resection without residual tumor). The observed 5-year survival after R0 resection is 15% to 40% for esophageal carcinoma, 40% to 75% for gastric carcinoma, and 55% to 60% for colorectal carcinoma; the respective figures for R1 and R2 resections are only about 5% each. In R1 and R2 cases prognosis is determined primarily by the absence or presence of distant metastases, and pT and pN are of minor significance. After R0 resection there is a wide spectrum of prognoses. Careful pTNM classification allows a good estimation of the prognosis and can be considered the gold standard for any analysis of treatment results.World Journal of Surgery 01/1995; 19(2):184-90. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare the results of transhiatal oesophagectomy with those of transthoracic resection with systematic two field en bloc lymphadenectomy in the treatment of carcinoma of the oesophagus. Prospective open (non-random) study. University hospital, Germany. 87 patients with carcinoma of the oesophagus of whom 46 underwent transhiatal, and 41 transthoracic resection. Morbidity and short and long term mortality. The type of operation was chosen on clinical grounds, and the groups were comparable except for site and type of tumour, and nodal stage. The hospital mortality was 7/46 (15%) in the transhiatal group and 4/41 (10%) in the transthoracic group. The most common complication was anastomotic leak (23/46, 50%, compared with 10/41, 24%, p = 0.014), followed by major pulmonary complications (16/46, 35%, compared with 12/41, 29%), and cardiac complications (12/46, 26% compared with 11/41, 27%). Median survival was 350 days in the transhiatal group and 378 days in the transthoracic group. The percentage survival after one, two, and three years in the two groups was 48 and 55, 26 and 18, and 21 and 17, respectively. There were no significant differences in short or long term mortality. We have been unable to show that the oncologically more radical procedure (transthoracic resection with systematic two field en bloc lymphadenectomy) results in longer survival, but we have shown that it can be done with similar morbidity and short term mortality. Because it is possible to stage the disease exactly with a transthoracic resection, and because published reports from other centres have hinted at improved prognosis after it, we shall continue to do the operation for suitable patients.The European Journal of Surgery 09/1995; 161(8):557-67.