The use of heavy nitrogen in quantitative proteomics experiments in plants.
ABSTRACT In the growing field of plant systems biology, there is an undisputed need for methods allowing accurate quantitation of proteins and metabolites. As autotrophic organisms, plants can easily metabolize different nitrogen isotopes, resulting in proteins and metabolites with distinct molecular mass that can be separated on a mass spectrometer. In comparative quantitative experiments, treated and untreated samples are differentially labeled by nitrogen isotopes and jointly processed, thereby minimizing sample-to-sample variation. In recent years, heavy nitrogen labeling has become a widely used strategy in quantitative proteomics and novel approaches have been developed for metabolite identification. Here, we present an overview of currently used experimental strategies in heavy nitrogen labeling in plants and provide background on the history and function of this quantitation technique.
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ABSTRACT: Plasma membrane microdomains are features based on the physical properties of the lipid and sterol environment and have particular roles in signaling processes. Extracting sterol-enriched membrane microdomains from plant cells for proteomic analysis is a difficult task mainly due to multiple preparation steps and sources for contaminations from other cellular compartments. The plasma membrane constitutes only about 5-20% of all the membranes in a plant cell, and therefore isolation of highly purified plasma membrane fraction is challenging. A frequently used method involves aqueous two-phase partitioning in polyethylene glycol and dextran, which yields plasma membrane vesicles with a purity of 95% (1). Sterol-rich membrane microdomains within the plasma membrane are insoluble upon treatment with cold nonionic detergents at alkaline pH. This detergent-resistant membrane fraction can be separated from the bulk plasma membrane by ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient (2). Subsequently, proteins can be extracted from the low density band of the sucrose gradient by methanol/chloroform precipitation. Extracted protein will then be trypsin digested, desalted and finally analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Our extraction protocol for sterol-rich microdomains is optimized for the preparation of clean detergent-resistant membrane fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures. We use full metabolic labeling of Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cell cultures with K(15)NO3 as the only nitrogen source for quantitative comparative proteomic studies following biological treatment of interest (3). By mixing equal ratios of labeled and unlabeled cell cultures for joint protein extraction the influence of preparation steps on final quantitative result is kept at a minimum. Also loss of material during extraction will affect both control and treatment samples in the same way, and therefore the ratio of light and heave peptide will remain constant. In the proposed method either labeled or unlabeled cell culture undergoes a biological treatment, while the other serves as control (4).Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Plant breeders need new and more precise tools to accelerate breeding programs that address the increasing needs for food, feed, energy and raw materials, while facing a changing environment in which high salinity and drought have major impacts on crop losses worldwide. This review covers the achievements and bottlenecks in the identification and validation of proteins with relevance in abiotic stress tolerance, also mentioning the unexpected consequences of the stress in allergen expression. While addressing the key pathways regulating abiotic stress plant adaptation, comprehensive data is presented on the proteins confirmed as relevant to confer tolerance. Promising candidates still to be confirmed are also highlighted, as well as the specific protein families and protein modifications for which detection and characterization is still a challenge. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics SI: Translational Plant Proteomics.Journal of proteomics 07/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three new orbitides (cyclolinopeptides 17, 18 and 19) were identified in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts without any form of purification. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of (15) N-labeling experiments and extensive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses. Putative linear peptide sequences of the new orbitides were used as the query in TBLASTN searches of a flax genome database. These searches returned linear sequences for the putative precursors of cyclolinopeptides 17 and 19 among others. Cyclolinopeptide 18 contains MetO (O) and is not directly encoded, but is a product of post-translation modification of the Met present in 17. The identification of precursor proteins in flax mRNA transcripts and DNA sequences confirmed the occurrence and amino acid sequences of these orbitides as [1-9-αC]-MLKPFFFWI, [1-9-αC]-OLKPFFFWI and [1-9-αC]-GIPPFWLTL for cyclolinopeptides 17, 18 and 19, respectively.Biopolymers 01/2014; · 2.29 Impact Factor