A new three-dimensional model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
Medical Hypotheses (Impact Factor: 1.07). 12/2011; 78(2):341-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.11.016
Source: PubMed


The monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline have a great impact on mood, emotion and behavior. This article presents a new three-dimensional model for monoamine neurotransmitters and emotions. In the model, the monoamine systems are represented as orthogonal axes and the eight basic emotions, labeled according to Tomkins, are placed at each of the eight possible extreme values, represented as corners of a cube. The model may help in understanding human emotions, psychiatric illness and the effects of psychotropic drugs. However, further empirical studies are needed to establish its validity.

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Available from: Hugo Lövheim, Jul 07, 2015
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    • "Some studies suggest that cortisol can be seen as a marker of serotonergic activity (Hysek et al., 2014). This would fit with a recently proposed model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters suggesting that serotonin is important in the recognition of Disgust (Lövheim, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2h after treatment with oral cocaine (300mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.012 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    • "We note here that several other theories exist, although they are less prominent. One example is the cube of emotion [55], which is a dimensional theory of affect that expresses affect in terms of combinations of dopamine, adrenaline, and serotonin, which intersect in eight basic (but extreme) affects, e.g. distress, interest, joy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Affects---emotions and moods---have an impact on cognitive processing activities and the working performance of individuals. It has been established that software development tasks are undertaken through cognitive processing activities. Therefore, we have proposed to employ psychology theory and measurements in software engineering (SE) research. We have called it "psychoempirical software engineering". However, we found out that existing SE research has often fallen into misconceptions about the affect of developers, lacking in background theory and how to successfully employ psychological measurements in studies. The contribution of this paper is threefold. (1) It highlights the challenges to conduct proper affect-related studies with psychology; (2) it provides a comprehensive literature review in affect theory; and (3) it proposes guidelines for conducting psychoempirical software engineering.
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    • "One aspect of modern AI is affective computation that becomes more and more important. Affective computation is based on several domains: psychology [25] [26] [27] [28] [30], neuroscience [4] [5] [10] [17] [25] [28] [1], computer science [34] [6] [7] [8] [14] [22] [19] [8] [7] [5] [4] [2] [3] [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: How can we make machines actually feel emotions? Is there any option to make AI suffer, feel happiness, love, aggression, contempt, awe? Before we could find proper answer to this question we should take in account several aspects: philosophical, psychological, neurophysiological and cogni-tive architecture combine these theories. We propose mapping of neuromodulators on computational processes that could be used as framework for affective computation based on Lövheim "Cube of emotions" [17] , Plutchik "Wheel of emotions" [25], Tomkins "Theory of affects" [13] and combine this theories in the cognitive architecture of "The emotion machine" by Marvin Minsky [21]. In other words we propose a mechanism of affects (emotions) as neuromodulatory influence on compu-tational processes.
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