A new three-dimensional model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
Medical Hypotheses (Impact Factor: 1.07). 12/2011; 78(2):341-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.11.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline have a great impact on mood, emotion and behavior. This article presents a new three-dimensional model for monoamine neurotransmitters and emotions. In the model, the monoamine systems are represented as orthogonal axes and the eight basic emotions, labeled according to Tomkins, are placed at each of the eight possible extreme values, represented as corners of a cube. The model may help in understanding human emotions, psychiatric illness and the effects of psychotropic drugs. However, further empirical studies are needed to establish its validity.

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Available from: Hugo Lövheim, Jul 07, 2015
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    • "We note here that several other theories exist, although they are less prominent. One example is the cube of emotion [55], which is a dimensional theory of affect that expresses affect in terms of combinations of dopamine, adrenaline, and serotonin, which intersect in eight basic (but extreme) affects, e.g. distress, interest, joy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Affects---emotions and moods---have an impact on cognitive processing activities and the working performance of individuals. It has been established that software development tasks are undertaken through cognitive processing activities. Therefore, we have proposed to employ psychology theory and measurements in software engineering (SE) research. We have called it "psychoempirical software engineering". However, we found out that existing SE research has often fallen into misconceptions about the affect of developers, lacking in background theory and how to successfully employ psychological measurements in studies. The contribution of this paper is threefold. (1) It highlights the challenges to conduct proper affect-related studies with psychology; (2) it provides a comprehensive literature review in affect theory; and (3) it proposes guidelines for conducting psychoempirical software engineering.
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    • "One aspect of modern AI is affective computation that becomes more and more important. Affective computation is based on several domains: psychology [25] [26] [27] [28] [30], neuroscience [4] [5] [10] [17] [25] [28] [1], computer science [34] [6] [7] [8] [14] [22] [19] [8] [7] [5] [4] [2] [3] [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: How can we make machines actually feel emotions? Is there any option to make AI suffer, feel happiness, love, aggression, contempt, awe? Before we could find proper answer to this question we should take in account several aspects: philosophical, psychological, neurophysiological and cogni-tive architecture combine these theories. We propose mapping of neuromodulators on computational processes that could be used as framework for affective computation based on Lövheim "Cube of emotions" [17] , Plutchik "Wheel of emotions" [25], Tomkins "Theory of affects" [13] and combine this theories in the cognitive architecture of "The emotion machine" by Marvin Minsky [21]. In other words we propose a mechanism of affects (emotions) as neuromodulatory influence on compu-tational processes.
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    • "Dopamine Serotonin Noradrenaline Contempt Disgust Enjoyment Joy Interest Excitement Anger Rage Shame Humiliation Distress Anguish Fear Terror Surprise Circumplex model /VAD PANA model Plutchik's model Lövheim cube of emotion Russel (1980) [2] "
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    ABSTRACT: With the advancement of cognitive science, the research on the psychology of emotions has become the subject of many studies. The affect-related physiological changes in human body, that have an impact on respiration, phonation and articulation, determine the vocalization character and produce emotion-specific patterns of acoustic parameters of a speech signal. Emotions, the inherent paralinguistic component of verbal communication, can be therefore considered as a semiotic resource for meaning making in situational context. They can indicate speaker’s state and intentions, which seems particularly important in the situational context of emergency notifications. Under the ongoing project of Signal Processing Group (Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology), biometric and psycho-sociological portraits of speakers calling an emergency number are created. The proper recognition of callers' emotions can contribute to immediate and accurate reaction of emergency services, as well as efficient threat detection and neutralization. For the purposes of the project, a corpus of archived emergency calls recordings was prepared. The corpus consists of approximately 3300 different calls recordings of the total length in excess of 45 hours. All of the recordings were anonymized to eliminate any personal data. At the stage of recordings preparation, each one was labeled with tags of emotions types and their arousal (1-4 scale) on the basis of listeners' perception. It was observed that the basic emotions usually appear in complex groups or configurations, related to the situational context, which reveals the meaning potential emerging from human emotions. The authors of this poster propose to create and visualize the emotional profiles of people calling an emergency number. The analyses of emotions’ occurrences include the study of emotions’ relations within a specific phone call, as well as statistics and distribution of the emotions in the emergency phone calls corpora. These studies gave the possibility to identify the profiles most commonly reported. Each profile has its own graphical representation which provides easy-to-read information on the type and intensity of each basic emotion included in a profile. Profiles are visualized in correspondence to the most popular emotion models (VAD diagram, Plutchick's model). Some new models are also proposed. Moreover, the situational context of an identified emotional profile was analyzed and described to present the connection between emotions form and their meaning. An attempt to automatically create emotional profiles of emergency phone callers was made. Each profile was described by mathematical models consisting of acoustic parameters (energy, time and pitch-related features and spectral features) correlated to the distinguished complex emotional states. These parameters can be regarded as vocal code to communicate affective states. Automatic profile determination during an emergency phone call would fulfil the overall phone call characterization.
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