A new three-dimensional model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
Medical Hypotheses (Impact Factor: 1.07). 12/2011; 78(2):341-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.11.016
Source: PubMed


The monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline have a great impact on mood, emotion and behavior. This article presents a new three-dimensional model for monoamine neurotransmitters and emotions. In the model, the monoamine systems are represented as orthogonal axes and the eight basic emotions, labeled according to Tomkins, are placed at each of the eight possible extreme values, represented as corners of a cube. The model may help in understanding human emotions, psychiatric illness and the effects of psychotropic drugs. However, further empirical studies are needed to establish its validity.

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Available from: Hugo Lövheim, Jul 07, 2015
    • "Some studies suggest that cortisol can be seen as a marker of serotonergic activity (Hysek et al., 2014). This would fit with a recently proposed model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters suggesting that serotonin is important in the recognition of Disgust (Lövheim, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2h after treatment with oral cocaine (300mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2015; 25(11). DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.012 · 4.37 Impact Factor
    • "The author discusses the Darwinian, the Jamesian, the cognitivists and the social constructivist theoretical perspectives and claims that these perspectives have begun to converge. Besides those philosophical [19] and physiological perspectives [13] present relevant contributions to be taken into account in the process of understanding how emotions are expressed by vocal and facial gestures. Results of the research on the perception of emotions demonstrate that judges are able to infer speech with better-than-chance accuracy [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a perceptual and acoustic experiment and introduces methodological procedures to deal with qualitative and quantitative variables. Its objectives are: investigating the functions of vocal and facial gestures in the appraisal of six basic emotions (Anger, Distaste, Fear, Happiness, Sadness and Shame) and valence (positive, neutral and negative); discussing the interaction between the visual, vocal and semantic dimensions in the evaluation of audio, visual and audiovisual stimuli corresponding to 30 utterances (10 of them semantically positive, 10 neutral and10 negative). The correlation among the variables was made by non-parametric tests applying FAMD and MFA. Among the perceptual and acoustic variables investigated, the most influential for the identification of valence/emotions were found to be the VPAS and the ExpressionEvaluator measures. Judgments concerning the positive, negative and neutral valence of the utterances and the type of emotion varied accordingly to the kind of stimuli (audio, visual or audiovisual).
    ICPhS 2015 - 18TH International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, UK; 08/2015
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    • "We note here that several other theories exist, although they are less prominent. One example is the cube of emotion [55], which is a dimensional theory of affect that expresses affect in terms of combinations of dopamine, adrenaline, and serotonin, which intersect in eight basic (but extreme) affects, e.g. distress, interest, joy. "
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